3 Then it was in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first of the month
5 Beyond the Yardēn, in the land of Mōa̕v, Mōshēh had been willing to make be plain this law saying, “Yăhwēh your Almĭghty made be spoken unto us in Ḥōrēv̱, saying 6 ‘
9 “Then, I said unto you, in that time, saying, ‘I am not able by myself to carry you. 10 Yăhwēh your Almĭghty has made you multiply. And look at yourselves today as the stars of the heavens so multiplied. 11 May Yăhwēh the Almĭghty of your fathers add upon you, as you |
14 “Then you answered me, and you said, ‘The word is good, which you have made be spoken to do.’ 15 Then I received the heads of your tribes, wise men, and knowledgeable ones. Then I put them
18 “Then I made be commanded you at that time all the things which you must do. 19 Then we pulled out from Ḥōrēv̱. Then we walked all that great and awesome wilderness, which you have seen
23 “Then was good in my eyes the matter. Then I took from you twelve men, one man to the tribe. 24 Then they turned. Then they went up toward the hill country. Then they came onward to the Naḥal (wash valley) of ’Eshkōl. Then they spied it out. 25 Then they took in their hands from the fruit of the earth. Then they made
|29||29 “Then I said unto you, ‘You must not be frightened. And you must not be in fear from them. 30 Yăhwēh your Almĭghty is the one walking at your faces. He himself will fight for you just like all which he had done with you in Mitsrayim, before your eyes. 31 And in the wilderness, which you have seen, when had carried you, Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, as that a man carries his son, in all the way which you have walked onward to your coming onward to this place. 32 And in this word you were not making your support (affirming faithfulness), in Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, 33 the one walking at your faces in the way to seek out for you a place to encamp yourselves, in the fire by night to make you see in the way which you should walk in it, and by the cloud by day.”|
34 “Then Yăhwēh heard the sound of your words. Then he became angry. Then he swore himself saying, 35 ‘No man will see, among these men of this evil generation, the good land which I have sworn myself to give to their fathers, 36 except Calēv̱ son of Yephūnneh. He will see it, and to him I will give the land which he has gone way in it, and to his sons, because that he made be full
41 “Then you answered. Then you said unto me, ‘We have sinned against Yăhwēh. We will go up. And we will have been fighting according to all which Yăhwēh our Almĭghty has made be commanded us.’ Then you girded, each one his battle gear. Then you made
|1||1 “Then we turned. Then we pulled up toward the wilderness of the way of Yam Sūf (End Sea) as that Yăhwēh had made be commanded unto me. Then we went around the hill country of Sē‘i̱r many days. 2 Then Yăhwēh said unto me, saying, 3 ‘Enough for you going around this hill country. Turn yourselves northward, 4 and make be commanded the people saying, “You are going to cross over into the border of your brothers, the sons of ‘Ēsaυ, those dwelling in Sē‘i̱r. Then they will fear from you. And you will have guarded yourselves strictly. 5 You shall not make yourselves be stirred up over them, because I will not give to you from their land as far as a tread of the sole of a foot, because an inheritance to ‘Ēsaυ I have given the hill country of Sē‘i̱r.’”|
6 “‘Food you shall broker from with them in |
9 “Then Yăhwēh said unto me, ‘You shall not besiege Mō’av̱. And you shall not make yourselves be stirred up over them a war, because I will not give to you from his land an inheritance, because to the sons of Lōt I have given ‘Ar
13 “‘Now rise up, and cross over yourselves the Naḥal (wash valley) Zered.’ Then we crossed over the Naḥal Zered. 14 And the days which we had walked from Qadēsh-Barnē‘a onward to when we had crossed over the Naḥal Zered
|20||20 (A land of the Repha’i̱m it is reckoned, yea it was. The Repha’i̱m dwelled in it formerly. And the ‘Ammōni̱m call them Zamzūmmi̱m, a people great and many, and high like the ‘Anaqi̱m. Then Yăhwēh made them annihilated from before their faces. Then they inherited them. Then, they dwelled in their place, 22 as that he had done for the sons of ‘Ēsaυ, the ones dwelling in Sē‘i̱r when he had made annihlated the Ḥōri̱ from before their faces. Then they inherited them. Then they dwelled in their place onward this day. 23 And the ‘Aυυi̱m, the ones dwelling in villages onward to ‘Azzah, the Caphtōri̱m, the ones going out from Caphtōr had made them annihlated. Then they dwelled in their place.)|
|24||24 “‘Rise up! Pull out! And cross over the Naḥal ’Arnōn! See, I have put in your hand Si̱ḥōn, king of Ḥeshbōn, the ’Emōri̱, and his land. Begin! Inherit! And make yourselves be stirred up against him a war! 25 This day I will make a beginning to put the dread of you, and the fear of you upon the faces of the peoples under all the heavens, which must hear a hearing of you. And they will have been shaken and they will have been writhing from before your faces.’”|
26 “Then I sent messengers from the wilderness of Qedēmōt unto Si̱hōn, king of Ḥeshbōn, words of shalōm saying, 27 ‘I wish to cross over in your land, on the road. On the road I will go. I will not go aside right and left. 28 Food in
30 “And not had been willing Si̱ḥōn, king of Ḥeshbōn to make us cross over in it, because Yăhwēh our Almĭghty had made hard his spirit and he had made be firm his heart in order to give him into your hand, as
1 “Then we turned. Then we went up the way of Bashan. Then went out ‘Ōg, king of Bashan, to call on us, he and all his people, to battle
18 “Then I made be commanded you at that time, saying, ‘Yăhwēh your Almĭghty has given to you this land to inherit it. Being equipped you shall cross over before the faces of your brothers, the sons of Yisra’ēl, all the sons of the army. 19 Only your women, and your little ones, and your cattle, (I have known that many cattle
|21||21 “And Yehōshū‘a I made be commanded at that time, saying, ‘Your eyes are seeing all which Yăhwēh your Almĭghty has done to these two kings. So Yăhwēh will do to all the kingdoms which you are crossing over to there. 22 You’all shall not fear them, because Yăhwēh your Almĭghty is he who is fighting for you’all.’”|
|23||23 “Then I made myself be seeking favor unto Yăhwēh at that time, saying, 24 ‘A̕dŏnai̱ Yăhwēh you have made a beginning to make your servant see your greatness, and your strong hand, because who is god in the heavens and in the earth that can act according to your works, and according to your mighty acts? 25 Let me cross over please, and let me see the good land which is across the Yardēn, that good hill country, and Lev̱anōn.’ 26 Then, Yăhwēh made himself be cross at me on your account, and he had not listened unto me. Then Yăhwēh said unto me, ‘Enough from you! Do not add to make be spoken unto me again in this matter. 27 Ascend the peak of Pisgah, and lift your eyes seaward, and northward, and southward, and toward the rising, and see with your eyes, because you will not cross over this Yardēn. 28 And make be commanded Yehōshū‘a. And make him be strong, and make him be firm, because he, he will cross over before the faces of this people. And he shall make them inherit the land which you will see.’”|
|29||29 “Then, we dwelled in the valley opposite Bēi̱t-Pe‘ōr.”|
1 And now Yisra’ēl listen unto the statutes and the judgments which I am making be taught you to do, so that you will live, and you will have entered, and you will have inherited the land which Yăhwēh, the Almĭghty of your fathers, is giving to you. 2 You shall not add upon the word which I am making be commanded you’all, and you shall not subtract from it, to keep the commandments of Yăhwēh your Almĭghty which I am making be commanded you. 3 Your eyes see that which Yăhwēh has done at Ba‘al-Pe‘ōr, because every man which had walked after Ba‘al-Pe‘ōr, Yăhwēh your Almĭghty has made him annihilated from the midst of you. 4 And you’all who clung onto Yăhwēh your Almĭghty are alive, all of you this day. 5 See! I have made be taught you statutes and judgments as that Yăhwēh my Almĭghty has made be commanded me, to do thusly in the midst of the land which you are entering to there, to inherit it. 6 And you will have kept
9 “Only be watchful of yourselves, and guard your soul carefully lest you forget the things which your eyes have seen, and lest you turn from your heart all the days of your life. And you will have made them known to your sons, and to the sons of your sons, 10 the day which you had stood at the face of Yăhwēh your Almĭghty in Ḥōrēv̱, when said Yăhwēh unto me, ‘Make assemble for me the people, and I wish to make them hear the words
20 “And you, Yăhwēh had taken. Then he made you go out from the iron furnace of Mitsrayim to be for himself as a people, an inheritance, as at this day. 21 And Yăhwēh has made himself be angry with me over your words. Then, he swore himself to not crossing me the Yardēn, and to not entering unto the good land which Yăhwēh your Almĭghty is giving to you
25 “When you make begotten sons, and sons of sons, and you will have fallen asleep in the land, and you will have made a corruption, and you will have made an image, a figure of anything, then you will have done evil in the eyes of Yăhwēh your Almĭghty to make him angry. 26 I have made witness against you’all this day, the heavens and the earth, that perishing you must perish quickly from upon the land which you are crossing over the Yardēn to there to inherit it. You will not lengthen days upon it, but being annihilated you will surely be annihilated. 27 Then Yăhwēh will have made you scattered among the peoples, and you will have been left few of number among the nations that Yăhwēh will make you be driven to there. 28 And you will have served there gods, the work of the hands of man, wood and stone which cannot see, and cannot hear, and cannot eat, and cannot smell. 29 And you will have made be sought from there Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, and you will have found |
31 “Because Gŏd
40 “Then, you will have kept his statutes and his commandments, which I
41 At that time, Mōshēh made separated three cities across the Yardēn, toward the rising of the sun, 42 to
44 And this is the Law which Mōshēh had set at the face of the sons of Yisra’ēl. 45 These are the witnesses and the statutes, and the judgments which Mōshēh made to be spoken unto the sons of Yisra’ēl in their going out from Mistrayim, on the other side of the Yardēn, in the valley opposite Bēi̱t-Pe‘ōr, in the land of Si̱ḥōn, king of the E̕mōri̱, who |
1 Then Mōshēh called unto all Yisra’ēl. Then he said unto them, “Hear Yisra’ēl the statutes and the judgments which I am making to be spoken in your ears today, and you will have learned them, and you will have watched to do them. 2 Yăhwēh our Almĭghty has cut with us a covenant in Hōrēv̱. 3 Not with our fathers did Yăhwēh cut this covenant, but with us, we
|11||11 ‘You shall not bear the name of Yăhwēh your Almĭghty for nothing, because Yăhwēh will not make be acquitted he that shall bear his name for nothing.’|
12 ‘Keep the day of the Shabbat, by making it be holy as that Yăhwēh your Almĭghty has made be commanded you. 13 Six days you may serve, and you will have done all your work, 14 and the seventh day
1 And this |
4 Hear Yisra’ēl, Yăhwēh
1 All the commandments, which I am making be commanded you today, you shall observe to do, so that you will live, and you will have multiplied. And you will have entered, and you will have possessed the land which Yăhwēh swore himself to your fathers. 2 And you will have remembered all the way which Yăhwēh your Almĭghty made you walk, this fortieth year, in the wilderness, in order to make be humbled you, to make be tested you, to know that which
1 When there will arise in the midst of you a prophet or one dreaming a dream, (and he has given unto you a sign or portent, 2 and the sign and the wonder has come, which he has made to be spoken unto you), saying, “Let us walk after other gods,” which you have not known, “and let us serve them,” 3
|4||4 After Yăhwēh your Almĭghty you shall walk, and him you shall fear, and his commandments you shall keep, and unto his voice you shall listen, and him you shall serve, and on him you shall hold ¹tight.|
|5||5 And that prophet or that one dreaming the dreams will be made to die, because he has made to be spoken apostasy against Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, (who made you go out from the land of Egypt, and the one redeeming you from the house of slaves), to make you banished from the way which Yăhwēh your Almĭghty has made to be commanded you to walk in it. Then you will have made to be burned the evil from your midst.†|
|1||1 Observe¹ the month† of the ²A̕v̱i̱v̱. And you will have done Passover for Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, because in the month of the A̕v̱i̱v̱ Yăhwēh your Almĭghty made you go out from Egypt by night.‡|
2 And you will have sacrificed
|4||4 And no leavening shall be seen in your possession in all your borders a seven of days.†And nothing from the flesh, which you will sacrifice in the setting, on the first day, will not lodge overnight to the daybreak.‡|
5 You are not allowed to sacrifice the passover in one of your gates which Yăhwēh your Almĭghty is giving to you, 6 but unto the place which Yăhwēh your Almĭghty will choose to make his name to be dwelling there, you shall sacrifice the passover, in the setting, as the sun goes, the appointed time of your going out from Egypt.‡ 7 And you will have made
9 Seven sevens you shall count for yourself from making a start of the sickle in the standing grain. You shall begin to count seven sevens. 10 And you will have done the feast of sevens to Yăhwēh your Almĭghty. A sufficient free will offering
|16||16 Three times in the year all your males will seeᵅ the face of Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, in the place which He will choose, in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of Shav̱ū‘ōt, and in the feast of Sūkkōt, and no one will seeᵝ the face of Yăhwēh empty-handed.|
|20||20 But the prophet who shall presume to make be spoken a word in my name, that which I have not made be commanded him to make be spoken, (and who will make be spoken in the name of other gods), then that prophet will have been put to death.†|
|21||21 And when you should say in your heart, ‘How may we know the word which Yăhwēh has not made be spoken him.’ 22 Whatever the prophet makes be spoken in the name of Yăhwēh, and the word will not become, and it will not come, it is the word which Yăhwēh has not made be spoken him. With presumption the prophet makes be spoken it. Do not be afraid on account of him.†|
1 When a man will take a wife, and he will have married her, then it may¹ have been if she should not find favor in his eyes, because he will have found in her a matter of nakedness, then he will have written for her a scroll of being made cut off†, and he will have given
5 When a man may take a new wife, he may not go out with the army, and one may not impose¹ upon him for any matter. Free he shall be
6 One shall not bind
|7||7 When a man is found stealing a soul from his brothers, from the sons of Yisra’ēl, and he has made himself to be a tyrant over him, and he has sold him, then that thief will have died. And you will have made to be burned the evil from the midst of you.|
8 Be watching for the touch of leprosy, to watch well, and to do according to all which the the priests, the Leυi̱yim shall make directed you, as that they will have made to be commanded,
10 When you make a loan with your neighbor, a loan of anything, you shall not go into his house to take in pledge his pledge. 11 On the outside you shall stand, and the man whom you are loaning with him, he shall make go out unto you the pledge, to the outside. 12 And if a poor man he
14 You shall not oppress a hired man, poor and needy, from your brothers or from your sojourner, who is in your land, within your gates. 15 On its day you shall give his wage, and you shall not make the sun enter upon him, because he
|26||26 Cursed is that one which does not confirm the words of this Law, to do them. And all the people will have said A̕maen.‡|
|2||2 Then Mōshēh called unto all Yisra’ēl. Then he said unto them, “You, You have seen† all which Yăhwēh has done before your eyes in the land of Egypt, to Pharo̒ah, and to all his servants, and to all his land, 3 the great trials which your eyes have seen, the signs, and those great wonders.|
4 And Yăhwēh has not given to you, the understanding to know, and eyes to see, and ears to hear even unto this day.† 5 Therefore† I made you walk forty years in the wilderness. Your clothes have not worn out from upon you, and your sandals have not worn out from upon your feet. 6 Bread you have not eaten, and wine and liquor you have not drunk, so that† you may know that I
|7||7 Then you came unto this place. Then went out Si̱ḥōn, king of Ḥeshbōn, and Ō̒g, king of the Bashan, to meet¹ us for battle. Then we made them smitten. 8 Then we took their land. Then we gave it for an inheritance to the Re̓ūv̱ni̱, and to the Gadi̱, and to the half tribe of the Menashi̱.†|
|9||9 And you will have kept the words of this covenant. And you will have done them, so that you may make wise† all which you will do.|
10 You are standing today, all of you before the face of Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, your heads, your tribes, your elders, and your officers, all the men of Yisra’ēl, 11 your children, your wives, and your sojourner which |
14 And not with you, only you† I
19 And it will have been, in his hearing the words of this oath, and he will have made himself to be blessed in his heart, saying, “peace will be for me when in the subbornness of my heart I will walk for the sake of sweeping away the watered along with the thirsty,”‡ 20
22 And the ¹later generation, your sons, who will rise up from after them, and the aliens, who will come from a far land, and they will have seen the wounds of that land, and the plagues which Yăhwēh has made be sick on it, 23 brimestone and salt, a burning
25 Then they will say, “Because¹ they have forsaken the covenant of Yăhwēh, Almĭghty of their fathers, who had cut with them in his making them go out from the land of Egypt. 26 Then they went. Then they served other gods. Then they made themselves to be bowing to them, gods which they had not known them, and
|27||27 Then burned the anger of Yăhwēh against that land, to make come upon it all the curse being written in this book. Then Yăhwēh uprooted them from upon their ground in anger and in hot wrath, and in great ¹fury. Then he made them cast into another land as of this day.|
29 The things hidden |
1 And it will have been when they will come upon you, all these words, the blessing and the curse, which I have put before your face, and you will have made
7 And Yăhwēh your Almĭghty will have put all these curses upon your enemies, and upon your haters, which have pursued you. 8 And you will return, and you will have listened to the voice of Yăhwēh, and you will have done all his commandments, which I
12 It is not in the heavens, as to say, “Who will ascend for us unto the heavens, and he will receive it for us, and he will make us listen to it, and we may do it.”† 13 And not out over the sea it
15 See! I have put at your faces, today, life and good, and death and evil,‡ 16
17 And if your heart should turn away, and you will not listen, and you will have driven yourself away, and you will have made yourself to be bowing down to other gods, and you will have served them, 18
19 I make bear witness against you today, the heavens and the earth. Life and death, I have put before your face, the blessing and the curse, and you will have chosen for life so that you may live, you and your seed, 20 to love Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, to listen to his voice, and to cling on him, because he |
1 Then Mōshēh walked. Then he made to be spoken these words unto all Yisra’ēl. Then he said unto them, “A son of a hundred and twenty years I |
11 In coming all Yisra’ēl to seeᵅ the face of Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, in the place which He will choose, you shall proclaim this Law before all Yisra’ēl in their ears.
1:5† ^Beyond the Yardēn, in the land of Mōa̕v, Mōshēh had been willing to make to be plain this law. Mōshēh had not been willing to expound the Law to the whole nation after the rebellion of the ten spies, because they were not ready to hear it. He speaks to renew the words of the covenant with an oath of the people forty years from Mt. Si̱nai̱. This law:. The reference goes all the way back to Mt. Si̱nai̱. It says “this law” not because it is specific to the renewal of the covenant in the plains of Mōa̕v, because the remark is in the literary or written version of the Torah. From the readers point of view, it refers to the whole Torah. The notion that “this law” refers to a separate and different law giving after Mt. Si̱nai̱ is refuted by 4:44-5:3. In 5:3 the covenant at Si̱nai̱ is called “this covenant,” and it is cut with them who were listening in the plains of Mōa̕v, being renewed through their oath.
6:4‡ ^Hear Yisra’ēl, Yăhwēh is our Almĭghty, Yăhwēh only. Who is Yăhwēh? He is Făther, Sŏn, and Hŏly Spirit. For it is revealed in the beginning, “Let Us make man...,” and “The man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil.” This verse does not teach the contrary, and the greater Yăhwēh and the lesser Yăhwēh were known among the Jews in the first century, and before. After Mĕssiah came the Rabbis made it a heresy. They made it a heresy because they did not want to accept Mĕssiah for who he was. For since we know the nature of the Almĭghty is not one singular person, the word אֶחָד e̕ḥad takes on the proper sense. For example the word “army.” There is “one army”, or “the army is one.” Or take the word “people”, עַם, almost always treated as a singular in Hebrew. “The people are one.” “There is one people.” We can use a proper noun, a proper name, “Yisra’ēl is one,” “there is one Yisra’ēl.” We see then that the usage of “one” with a noun does not define the noun as one person. One has to assume apart from the construction Gŏd is “only one person.” The words “Yăhwēh e̕ḥad” do not, therefore, teach that Gŏd is one person. But there are a multitude of passages in the Hebrew that show Yăhwēh as more than one person. There are also passages showing that “There is none besides Me,” refer to a plural entity. The language only appears on the surface to be one person speaking, but there are enough examples in Hebrew of singular pronouns being used by plural entities to show that the Jewish contention that, “There is none besides Me,” must mean one person is wrong. Scripture must agree with Scripture, and there are many other Scriptures showing Yăhwēh acting as more than one person.
In the present passage, the word אֶחָד e̕ḥad has the sense of
Some other passages on the plural persons in the Almĭghty: Psa. 149:2, “his Makers”; Eccl. 12:1, “your Creators;” Gen. 19:24. Isa. 48:16.
The Kabbalah teaches that there are multiple
Now, I deal briefly with the Isaiah passages, because these are claimed to teach that Gŏd is only one person. The Scripture says, “
The question arises how the Father can speak using first person words and yet be including the Son, or how the Son can speak using first person words, and be including the Father. This is a case of one person speaking for all persons united in the one Almighty. One part of Elohim speaking represents all parts of Elohim. This way of speaking in Hebrew is represented in Exodus 17:3:
There are many other examples of singular pronouns in the first person being used by entities speaking for a plural entity: Isa 23:4; Ezek 26:2; Zeph. 2:15; Rev. 18:7. Zeph 2:15: “This is the exultant city, the one dwelling securely, the one saying in her heart, “I am, and no one is besides me.” (Nineveh). Isa. 47:7, “Then you say, ‘I shall be Queen forever.’” “...the one saying in her heart, ‘I am, and there is no one besides me. I shall not sit as a widow, nor shall I know bereavement’” (Isa. 47:8). “And … ‘No one sees me...I am, and there is no one besides me’” (Isa 47:10). Isa. 48:5, “My idol has done them, and my graven image and my molten image have commanded them.’” (house of Israel and Judah). Isa 48:7. “Edom said to him....” (Num 20:18).
Note Isa 48:12 is not very distant from Isa. 47:7,8, 10 (17 verses distant). Consider Isa 48:13, “My right hand spread out the heavens” (Psa. 110:1, “Sit as my right hand while I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”). The right hand is that part of the Almighty which is Messiah.
Isa 48:16, “
Who is the Servant? ‘You are My Servant, Israel, in whom I will show My glory” (Isa 49:3), yet He speaks in the first person in Isa. 49:1-2, 4, 5, 6. Isa. 49:14, “But Zion said, Yahweh has forsaken me, and Adonai has forgotten me.” “The place is too cramped from me. Make room for me that I may dwell here” (Isa. 49:20). Cf. Isa. 49:21.
All these passages show that a plural entity can speak in the first person singular, and speak of being exclusive, i.e. there is none besides me, and yet the context shows that the speaker is representing a plural entity. Therefore, since such language echos the very language of the Almighty, it follows that the Almighty himself may be, and is, a plural entity just as indicated in Genesis with the us passages.
We have just seen that if an entity speaks in the first person with I or my that the Hebrew language does not require the entity to be one person. Also the statement, “
Many people have been falsely taught by mono-personal theists that multi-personal theism is impossible on the basis of the Isaiah texts. Most of this argumentation comes from Judaism, but some of it comes from Modalists in the Church. Such false teaching depended on the assumption that first person singular pronouns can only be used by single persons and refer only to single persons. The Hebrew language shows this assumption to be false. It has been imposed by ignoring the Hebrew, and the correct English translations. Mono-personal theism simply assumes that the language only means what they think it means. Examination proves otherwise.
Messiah commands our ultimate trusting faithfulness, and our complete loyalty because He is Yahweh Elohim, and one with Father Yahweh, and His Spirit.
6:7† ^To sharpen, as in to hone the edge of the blade.
6:8¹ ^Frontlets, bands. A rare word without a precise meaning. It would include jewelry wrapped around the head with bangles between the eyes, or circlets which have a pointy projection down toward the nose where a jewel is often mounted.
6:8† ^And you will have bound them as a sign upon your hand. And they will have been as circlets¹ between your eyes.† The command is clearly a simile or comparison for meditation on, and memorization of the commandments. And it is fulfilled by doing those things.
Exodus 13:9 interprets the commandment as, “and as a memorial between your eyes.” Compare the construction: וּלְזִכָּרוֹן בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ and וּלְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ in 13:16.
6:9‡ ^This is not a simile or comparison. But the command bids us to literally post the commandments where they may be seen and read by the passerby.
16:1¹ ^ שָׁמוֹר, shamōr;
13:3† ^To know if for real: לָדַעַת הֲיִשְׁכֶם,
16:1† ^ אֶת־חֹדֶשׁ, e’t ḥōdesh. The word חֹדֶשׁ normally means “month,” as here. Rarely does it mean “new moon,” even though its etymology is from
16:1² ^There are not many proper names for months in pre-exilic Hebrews. There are only four named months, the first A̕v̱i̱v̱, the second Ziv (1Kings 6:1), the seventh, Ē’tani̱m (1Kings 8:2), and eighth, Būl (1Kings 6:38). The rest are numbered. The definite article appears with the 1st and the 7th month, here “the A̕v̱i̱v̱,” (הָאָבִיב) and in 1Kings 8:2, “the Ē’tani̱m” (הָאֵתָנִים). Translators often regard the article as generic (and so often skip translating it, i.e. JPS, TNK, The Stone Edition Tanach), which it is, but its usage points to a phenomenon of the month, namely in the case of A̕v̱i̱v̱, that green or fresh ears of barley appear in the month, and this is what the word means by etymology. Likewise Ē’tani̱m means “ever flowing” (BDB), and so the article with this word refers to the fact that the seventh month is characterized only the most permanent or hardy streams not going dry.
16:1‡ ^Observe¹ the month† of the ²A̕v̱i̱v̱. And you will have done Passover for Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, because in the month of the A̕v̱i̱v̱ Yăhwēh your Almĭghty made you go out from Egypt by night.‡ They went out by night, but they did not leave their houses until daybreak (Exodus 12:22b). How do we explain this? We explain this because the Passover under discussion in this chapter is an added memorial offering for the Exodus. The Passover offering in Exodus 12 was the offering for the Passover in Egypt. The offering for the Passover in Egypt is made on the afternoon of Nisan 14 and eating in the night after Nisan 14 (which is still Nisan 14 in terms of the calendar day they were using). The second offering is the memorial of the Exodus. This takes place in the late afternoon of Nisan 15, and is eaten in the night after the day as a memorial of the Exodus. This is because they went out of Egypt in the night after the day part of the 15th. And the 15th of Nisan, by a calendar day extends from daybreak on the 15th to daybreak on the 16th.
This additional legislation was given in the 40th year after Passover. So I can illustrate how it was implemented when Yisra’ēl came into the land:
Month: I AVIV, 1592 BC 2548 A.M. Sab. Cyc: 7. Jub. Cyc: 49 Cycle No: 52 Q1: 1.314 A Q2: -0.309 F LG: 93m W: 0.992' AL: 20.9 AV: 19.3 New Moon calculated for longitude: 35.20 and latitude 31.77 Location of calculations: Mt. Nebo, Jordan Author: Daniel Gregg I II III IV V VI VII ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ ↑ │ 1 │ 2 │ 3 │ 4 │ 5 │ 6 │ AVIV/NISAN│New Moon │ │ │ │ │ │ │ APR 5 │ APR 6 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │ 7 │ 8 │ 9 │ 10 │ 11 │ 12 │ 13 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~██╫██▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀██╫██ │
14♦…………│ 15◊…………│16-0-1 │17-0-2 │18-0-3 │19-0-4 │20-1-5 │ │Passover │Passover │ Sheaf │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 1 │ 2 │ 3 │ 4 │ 5 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ~██╫██▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │21-1-6 │22-1-7 │23-1-8 │24-1-9 │25-1-10 │26-1-11 │27-2-12 │ │ 7thULB│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 6│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒ │28-2-13 │29-2-14 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
16:2‡ ^And you will have sacrificed the Passover to Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, flock or cattle in the place which Yăhwēh will choose for making his name to be settled there.‡ With the first Passover offering, it could only be taken from the sheep or the goats: “From the sheep and from the goats you will take it” (Exodus 12:5). Here, however, the offering was permitted from the cattle, בָּקָר, baqar. The cattle are the larger animals, the oxen, bulls, and cows. This additional detail confirms that the offering in view is the second Passover offering late in the day on 15 A’v̱i̱v̱.
There are those who have accused Ezra or a later editor from adding these words to change the time of the Passover, since they clearly are speaking of a second offering. Such theories, however, fall right into the trap of the Higher Critics. Higher criticism is essentially the atheist explanation for the Torah. It teaches that the Torah was cobbled together from various sources or political and religious factions in the 7th to 6th centuries B.C. by priests during the time of Josiah. Ezra, indeed made some editorial remarks, but he did not write a whole new passage changing the Torah.
16:3¹ ^ עָלָיו, a̒laυ. This Hebrew preposition is the patient of quite a range of meanings. Here it means “with it” and in the next instance “in addition to it” (cf. BDB, Holladay: 7. in addition to.) There is no need here to try to extend the meaning of Passover from the offering to the whole seven days. The offering is made late on the 15th day, and unleavened bread is eaten in addition to it that day, and the remaining six days. The second “in addition to” however does not mean with it, but after it.
16:3² ^ לְמַעַן, lema‘an. BDB points out that the word can be used ironically, or after an event has established a reason. In other words, the original intent for the haste was not so they could have a memorial, but the haste is made into an intended reason for the memorial after the fact.
16:4† ^The Hebrew word שְׂאֹר se’ōr, refers to the leavening agents. That is the agent that causes fermentation. The other word חָמֵץ, ḥamēts, refers to a leavened product, i.e. bread made with yeast, or bread products allowed to ferment, like sourdough.
16:4‡ ^Again, this is speaking of the second offering. A similar commandment is given for the first offering in Exodus 12:10. The first day here, means the first day of unleavened bread, and “in the setting” means late on the day, in the afternoon. The limit for consuming the flesh, or disposing of it in the fire, is just before dawn on the 16th of the month.
16:6‡ ^The parallel statements, “the appointed time of your going out from Egypt,” and “as the sun goes down” indicate the second Passover offering. For it is evident that they did not go out of Egypt as the sun set on the night after the 14th day, nor is the point in their going out of Egypt, here, referred to as the morning. Rather it is as the sun set, because they went out by night (cf. 16:1). So the offering in view is the second Passover offering on the afternoon of Nisan 15, “as the sun goes”; then that night following the 15th day is the night of the Exodus.
16:7† ^The Hebrew word for “boiled” is בִּשַּׁלְתָּ, you have made to be boiled, bishalta. In Exodus 12:9, they are told not to boil the first offering on the 14th “in water,” and by implication not in a pot in its fat either, but it must roast over the fire, in which case it boils in its own fat, but is not contained in it. But this passage speaks of the second Passover offering, the festive offering memorializing the Exodus. It appears that it is allowed to boil (or broil) this offering. If ordinary boiling had not been here meant, which the term normally means, then we should have expected to see the restriction again that it not be boiled “in water,” or the specification that it must be “roasted with fire,” or “boiled in fire” (2Chron. 35:13, וַיְבַשְּׁלוּ הַפֶּסַח בָּאֵשׁ) and we see neither restriction here. The Higher Critics, not realizing that this was the festive offering for the 15th have used the matter of boiling to bolster their source hypothesis. John Gill mentions, “some think the Chagigah is here meant,” which is indeed correct. The Chagigah is the festive offering of the 15th. Rashi and Ibn Ezra on Deut. 16:2 point us in the direction of the other festive offerings also. The distinction is also implicit in 2Chron. 35:13, but is only non-contradictory if we realize that the roasted in fire offerings were on the 14th, and the offering of Deut. 16:4b is on the 15th, which is to be boiled.
16:8† ^If this verse follows the previous in order, then the six days are the remaining days of the feast, and the seventh day counts including the first day, as elsewhere. On the other hand, it may be that the verse stands independently. The difficulty with the later, is that the seventh day is left out of the days for eating unleavened bread.
16:16ᵅ ^Read: יִרְאֶה. See Exodus 23:15†.
16:16ᵝ ^Read: יִרְאֶה. See Exodus 23:15†.
24:1¹ ^Normally, I translate the future perfect as future perfect indicative, however, the case here is clearly a future perfect subjunctive. This is not grammaticalized in Hebrew, but it is certainly what the context indicates.
18:20† ^But the prophet who shall presume to make be spoken a word in my name, that which I have not made be commanded him to make be spoken, (and who will make be spoken in the name of other gods), then that prophet will have been put to death.† Contrary to the usual translation, which makes separate offenses of false prophesy, and speaking in the name of other gods, the Hebrew reads, “and who will make be spoken in the name of other gods,” (וַאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר בְּשֵׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים). A comparison with Deut. 13:1-5 and Deut. 18:22 shows that the death penalty was prescribed only for the false prophet who teaches Yisra’ēl to follow other gods, or who prophesies in the name of another god. For the false prophet who prophesied in the name of Yăhwēh, the penalty is that the prophet’s reputation is ruined, and the people do not have to listen to him or fear him (cf. 18:22).
18:22† ^This verse covers both the cases of the prophet that prophesies falsely in the name of another god, or in the name of Yăhwēh and another god, and the prophet who only prophesies in the name of Yăhwēh. The prophet who adds another god to his teaching is to die per vs. 20. Bil‘am prophesied in the name of Yăhwēh, and Yăhwēh, but he also followed other gods. Therefore, he was put to the sword. If a prophet prophesies falsely in the name of Yăhwēh, and it does not come to pass, then only Yăhwēh can judge whether the presumption was a careless mistake or real presumption. He will deal with that prophet. As for the people. They need not fear that prophet. Many prophesies are obscure and it is easy for some people to judge a prophesy false by making a poor interpretation of it. They are welcome to disregard the prophet if they cannot justify his words. If this passage stood alone, then we might conclude that any prophet who spoke wrongly should die, but the parallel passage in Deut. 13 appears to reinforce the idea that the false prophet has to be promoting false gods to go so far as to exact the death penalty.
24:1† ^כְּרִיתֻת keri̱tūt. The feminine Hiphil participle of כרת is מַכְרִיתָה. The מ augment is dropped, and the active feminine ending ָה is replaced with a passive feminine ending וּת. So the word is a passive Hiphil participle, a noun meaning, “a being made cut off.” This is a straightforward word for divorce or dismissal. And when put with “scroll” סֶפֶר sēfer it is a divorce document.
The reason for a bill of divorce was to protect men and women from charges of adultery when a second marriage occurred, in the face of justice administered by the authorities of a community. It was to certify that a marriage covenant had been broken, and was therefore ended. Breaking a marriage covenant by material failure to love and provide is not adultery. The act of divorce is not adultery. Remarriage without a divorce is adultery. Having two wives is not adultery. Dismissing a wife to marry another wife is adultery.
The case in this scripture only covers a very particular case in order to to prevent the first husband from acting as a pimp, and the wife as a prostitute. Tōrah does not explicitly legislate all of the practical rules needed for marriage law, and in this case only implies the principles involved. The case here only deals with a husband issuing a writ of divorce. The lack of mention of a wife issuing a writ of divorce does not mean no case exists where it is necessary for the wife to write one.
A legal bill of divorcement ended a marriage covenant. A frivolous bill of divorcement is to be judged the same as sending away a spouse without a bill of divorcement. Sending the spouse away without a bill of divorcement causes the spouse to commit adultery if they marry another person. Adultery defiles the land. See Jer. 3:9, 23:10. Prostitution defiles the land. See Jer. 3:1. Eze. 23:45 (cf. Num. 35:33-34). Adultery is a sin. Sin defiles the land (cf. Deut. 24:4).
The first marriage in the text presumes a legal marriage has occurred, and in this particular case, that the woman was accused of “the nakedness of some matter.” This is not really defined in the text, but the case assumes that whatever it was, it was a legitimate cause for ending the marriage covenant. For the woman’s remarriage was allowed to go forward without defiling the land. Sin defiles the land (Deu. 24:4).
The second husband’s grounds for divorce is hating her (vs. 3). It is implied by the case that the divorced woman could remarry anyone except the first husband. And so this divorce was also justified. It may be that he did not like her, and did not provide for her. So she was granted a divorce. Or it may be he did not give her her marital rights.
The second marriage was allowed to go forward. The Law commanded that adulterers be stoned, but no one is stoned for adultery in the second marriage. The second marriage does not defile the land (cf. vs 4). The second marraige does not pollute the land with sin (cf. vs. 4). Adultery is a sin. Therefore it cannot have been adultery. For if it was, then there would be no case, and also if it was adultery, then a judge would have had to say, “Why have they not been stoned for adultery yet?” And the case would be dismissed with an injunction for an execution to take place. If the second marriage where adultery, then it would defile the land. But the case finds that the second marriage does not defile the land. For it is allowed to happen, but remarriage to the first husband is not allowed, because it makes the land to sin. It would be too close to what happens with adultery, or a husband prostituting his wife.
24:4‡ ^הֻטַּמָּאָה hūttamma’ah = “she has been made to be defiled”; Hothpael. Passive of Hithpael. But really the passive or the reflexive cannot exist together. The form is the same as the Hophal, the passive of Hiphal.
John Gill comments, “after that she is defiled; not by whoredom, for in that case she was not forbidden, as it is interpreted, but by her being married to another man; when she was defiled, not by him, or with respect to him, nor with regard to any other man, whom she might lawfully marry after the decease of her latter husband; but with respect to her first husband, being by her divorce from him, and by her marriage to another, entirely alienated and separated from him, and so prohibited to him; and thus R. Joseph Kimchi interprets this defilement of prohibition, things prohibited being reckoned unclean, or not lawful to be used:”
24:5¹ ^= pass, cross over. יַעֲבֹר ya‘av̱ōr.
24:6² ^Perhaps: חָבֻל ḥav̱ūl, passive participle.
24:6³ ^נֶפֶשׁ nephesh = soul, person.
24:6¹ ^רָכֶב raḥev̱ From the participle רֹכֵב rōḳēv̱, riding, rider. A technical term for a stone that rides on top of another in a mill operation.
27:26‡ ^The curse is for the person who will not uphold the Law to do it. The phrase “to do them” expressed the proper aim of upholding the Law. The curse does not apply to anyone who fails by way of ignorance or a sin or circumstance. It only applies to one who fails because they reject the Law by way of transgression or iniquity. The Law makes a distinction between sin and Sin. And if the serious Sin is repented, then Mĕssiah’s sacrifice pays the punitive penalty for it, and the sinner will have been forgiven. But the sins of ignorance are forgiven through the Levitical service, or if it is not possible due to circumstance, then Mĕssiah’s offering will forgive it. But the Levitical Service was intended to atone for sins of ignorance.
29:1† ^ אֵלֶּה דִבְרֵי ē̓lleh div̱rēi. Compare the same words in Deut. 1:1 and Exodus 19:6, 35:1: אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים. The reference is back to Deut. 1:1. Everything from that point on is included in this new covenant, really a renewal of the previous, with added injunctions, and many references to the previous commandments. The covenant is made afresh and new, besides the first making of the covenant. This renewal is by an oath, and not by fresh sacrifices. The fundamental meaning of “covenant” is a “binding” (BDB) or “fetter” (TWOT), usually made with sacrifices, but it could also be made with an oath, as here.
29:1‡ ^ This commandment to Mōshēh is refered to in Deut. 1:3.
29:1• ^ The geographical location of this covenant renewal is important to determining where it starts. The reference to Mōa̓v̱ refers back to Deut. 1:5, and is repeated in 4:44-5:1 just before the ten commandments are spoken anew in 5:2ff. This covenant repeats all the commands, or includes all the commands of the previous covenant. The introductory phrases also confirm this, “These are the words,” which is the proper title of the book: Devarim. This verse (29:1) is an editorial remark, put into the written record of the address after the actual day Mōshēh delivered his discourse, inserted to explain the nature of the covenant (for future generations) that Mōshēh will shortly mention in his discourse.
There are some who wish to identify only the words following this editorial comment as an additional covenant, rather then a covenant renewal, and by doing so eliminate many important commandments, or by doing so to exclude most of the commandments from the extension of the covenant to the nations in vs. 15. But the very fact that this verse is an editorial remark refutes this notion. For the nation did not hear the editorial remark on the day of the address. So from their point of view, Mōshēh is just renewing the the covenant now 40 years later.
Further, the nature of the remark refutes this notion also. It doubly references the start of the address as noted above. There are indeed three (or so) breaks in the book, and the word “today” is used frequently in them. It may be that the whole address was on two days, and at the most three. The new moon day was the 6th day of the week, followed by the Sabbath. They would have gathered the double manna portion the morning of the sixth day, and would have been able to attend to Mōshēh’s last words for two days without a serious interruption, except a pause to eat, and take care of other basic needs.
29:1¹ ^ Ḥōrēv̱ was the general region. Mt. Si̱nai̱ was the specific mountain.
29:2† ^ Standing before Mōshēh are chiefly the elders, who will relay his message to the rest of the nation. By now the nation is over 3 million people. These elders indeed did see what happened in Egypt 40 years before, most all of them, being not more than 18 years old at the time.
29:4† ^ This because most of them were not seeking understanding, but they were along for the ride (so to speak). The statement is a general observation of the nation, and does not include those who really seek to know from knowing. He has not given the whole nation understanding to know. Understanding can be forced on those not disposed to listen by increasing their intelligence, but this is at risk of making a more diabolical rebel. Therefore, Yăhwēh leaves clues to understanding, that if followed lead to it, and if then honestly sought, he gives more understanding. The fatalistic Calvinist deity causes belief and unbelief. That is not what is being taught in this verse.
29:5† ^ The waw consecutive supplies a reason, “then” for the following statement. Yăhwēh did all these things to encourage them to seek, and to encourage them to understand. He has done most of the work already in confirming the truth of who he is and that he cares. He has been faithful, and all he is looking for is a faithful response, some first steps of seeking by his people. If they step out in genuine obedience and wanting to know with all their heart, then he will give them a heart to understand. As Messiah said, he who holds fast to what he has been given, will be given more, and he who does not hold to what he has been given, even what he has will be taken from him.
29:6† ^ Again, a reason for the miracle of the manna is supplied, so that they could know him.
29:7¹ ^ לִקרָאת liqra̓t = “to call upon.”
29:8† ^ The gentilic ending in Hebrew is to finish the noun with the /i̱/. The definite article is retained. Like saying, “The Wisconsonian” or “The Californian.”
29:11† ^ Even the lowest slave is included here. No one can be exluded from the universal reach of the covenant.
29:9† Or perhaps, ^ תֻּשְׂכְּלוּ אֵת tūskelū ē̓t = “be made wise with” if a Mater letter was put in incorrectly.
29:14† ^ אִתְּכֶם לְבַדְּכֶם i̓tḳem lev̱adḳem = “with you, only you.” The repetition of the pronoun “you,” is to emphasize that someone else outside of they who are customarily identified as “you” are under the stipulations of the covenant, even if so be for the time being those outside Yisra’ēl are subject to the curses of it. There are some who are going to argue that the point of this passage is to say only the covenant is made with future generations of Yisra’ēl. This notion is utterly refuted by the repeated use of “reside” in the passage (see vs. 15, 18), and the use of the words “with whomever.” See notes there. If the covenant were not extended to the nations, then they could indeed have “shalom” in the midst of Yisra’ēl from prosecution (see vs. 19).
29:15† ^ אֶת־אֲשֶׁר e̓t-a̓sher. Due to the fact that the Hebrew relative pronoun may be translated, “that, which, who, whoever, whom, what” and that the object marker may be translated “the, that, with” or not at all, it is impossible to show the concordance of the repeated e̓t-a̓sher in the English translation without making the English a bit awkward. The reason that the covenant is extened to “with whoever” is a non-Yisra’ēli̱ that lives in the nations is that if the nations do not yield to the covenant, then the nations are a mortal threat to the spiritual well-being of Yisra’ēl. The progression is 1. “with whoever”, 2. “with whoever”, 3. “with what”, 4. “that which” (to remove the awkardness of the English). The reasoning is such that the only way to neutralize the threat is to include the nations in the covenant, and make it binding upon them, with all the curses and penalties thereof, or if they yield to the truth, then they may reap all the promises and blessings thereof, as promised to A̓v̱raham, that all the nations would be blessed through him.
29:15‡ ^ יֶשׁנוֹ yeshnō from יֶשׁ yesh and וֹ /ō/, 3ms pronoun. A particle meaning “exists,” which appears to be related to the root יָשַׁב yashav = “sit, remain, dwell.” The sense of “be resident with/in,” the existence of something in reality. The meaning includes every person in the camp of Yisra’ēl.
29:15¹ ^ and (emphasized logical and, adding two conditions together). English structure usually demands “not only...but also”; Hebrew achieves the same idea by means of an added phrase introduced emphatically, making a previous denial true by adding conjunctive condition.
29:15♦ ^ Jewish commentators claim that this phrase only refers to posterity to avoid obligating the non-Jew to the covenant. Likewise do Christian commentators interpret. This opinion is prohibited on several points. 1. The Hebrew word פֹּה pōh, “here” always means something present at a nearby location in the present time. The negation of it means those who are somewhere else at the present time. The matter is secured by the words “with whomever” אֵת אֲשֶׁר ē̓t a̓sher, repeated twice more in the next verse, and clearly referring to the pagans they had to deal with in Egypt, and in Moab, and in the two kingdoms mentioned in vs. 7. If the Hebrew had simply meant posterity, then it would have said, “for your generations,” or “with your sons, and the sons of your sons.”
If it is assumed that the non-Yisra’ēli̱ is excused from the covenant, then this does not explain why all who existed, יֶשׁנוֹ, there that day, were included, including some very recent acquistions of foreigners to the nation. There were no exceptions. There were captives, freshly minited sojourners among them, and they did not have the choice of “opting out of this covenant” any more than a native. Further, the reasoning in vs. 16ff makes no sense unless the “whomever” at the end of vs. 15 means the same “whomever” in the nations. They are included into the covenant obligation precisely to keep one of them from being excused from it by virtue of not being born as a native.
29:17† ^ גִּלֻּלֵיהֶם from גִּלּוּלִים gillūli̱m, “
29:18† ^ Notice that the first “whomever”, אֵת אֲשֶׁר ē̓t a̓sher “with whomever”, in vs. 15 is an invitation to the non-Yisra’ēli̱ dwelling afar. The Almĭghty wants them to realize their obligation that judgment is coming, but judgment can be avoided by faithfulness in the covenant, by forsaking their idolatry. In vs. 18, a different tone is taken “with whomever” (really, native or non native, as the first “whomever” be everyone in the camp on that day) will be in them midst of Yisra’ēl, who turns away from knowing the truth to serve foreign gods. Idolatry, is indeed the last straw, the final error, but we note that the injunction laid on all, “with whoever” is the complete oath, and the whole covenant (cf. Deut. 27:26, “Cursed
29:19‡ ^ This is the pagan in the heart, or in practice, whether native born or foreign born, who hears the Law, who rejects it, and who sets themselves to become to become a snare to his fellow pagans (the thirsty), and to the rest of Yisra’ēl (the watered, who are not so deceived). The thirsty are the nations afar, who are deceived, who are subject to the covenant, but who are to be given space for repentence. We see this distinction on the geo-political level. Satan moves the worst rebels into Yisra’ēl if he can so get away with it, and corrupt them, the seven Kena‘ani̱ nations. Therefore the Almĭghty puts the severest judgment on them, and anyone else near, or among his people, who corrupt the covenant. Meanwhile, he extends a greater space forebearance afar, to allow those among the nations greater space to forsake their idolatry.
29:21† ^ We may pose the question, to clarify things, “When does a pagan become obligated to the covenant?” A. They always are? B. Only when they move into the border of the land, and only when they are surrounded by direct descendents of Ya‘aqōv̱? C. Only some laws when they are away from the land and the people, and only the whole law when they are in the midst of Yisra’ēl? D. Only when they are genetic descendents? E. Only when they are pagans who have converted and have been circumcised. If the answer be “B” then how will the world be judged at the end? We see that “C” answers the objection raised by answer “B.” We see that C allows non-natives to be idolators when they go on vacation. We see that D contradicts vs. 10-11. We see that E. contradicts Joshua 5:4-7 as well as the fact that the covenant that day was unilateral, and that the all the people had only two choices, agree, or be rebels.
We see no third program for ex-pagans, or for non-idolators who cannot trace their lineage to Yisra’ēl. We see no space allowed on the question of circumcision for leaders (cf. Ex. 4:24-26), but that it is for the descendents of rebels (Josh. 5:4-7), so long as they walk in the exile, and not in the land. In theory these children were obligated, but they were not condemend. This sounds a lot like Paul to me.
So then, what of those who make themselves leaders, and who teach a third option, not found in the Torah, who say to the non-Jew that Sabbath and feast days are not for them? Who say that eating clean is not for them? Who say they have no obligation to be circumcised, and then accuse those who say they do of trying to be saved by works? I say they are false teachers, who have exempted the non-Jew from the Torah, only so they can keep those who are not uncircumcised away, unless they go through their progam, and their authorities to become a Jew, wherein they can boast in their flesh. I say that they hate (in the formal objective sense, and not necesarily a personal emotional sense) the nations, and have little compassion for them. For the nations ask “Why do you keep the Sabbath,” and the answer should be, “It is a sign that Yăhwēh Almĭghty sanctifies us, a sign that He created in six days. The Sabbath is an emblem of the true Creator, who made earth and heaven in six days. Therefore, we show our loyalty to him by keeping Sabbath. As Messiah, he rested on the seventh day, and was refreshed. Therefore Messiah’s Sabbath is the prevention of idolatry, and the witness against all pagan cosmology. It reminds of whom we serve.” And who would want to deny the non-Jew this obligation and blessing to demonstrate faithfulness to the Creator? And who would want to deny the blessing flowing from it? See Isa. 56:1-8. The outcasts are loved. The deniers are leaven.
29:22¹ ^ הָֽאַחֲר֗וֹן ha-a̓ḥarōn = “the after [one]”. Compare Mt. 28:1: וְהָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל־הַשָּׁבַּתוֹת = Ὀψὲ δὲ σαββάτων = the late [one] of the Sabbaths.
29:25¹ ^ עַל אֲשֶׁר a̒l a̓sher = “upon which”.
29:26‡ ^ I read Piel: חִלֵּק ḥillēq. But Qal can come close to the same sense, just without the passive emphasis, “he had not shared for them.” The idea is clearly that Gŏd had made no share in his offerings with false gods. He did not divide his due up with them. The final pronoun, הֶם hem, therefore, has reference to the false gods, and not to Yisra’ēl. Ellicott’s Commentary for English Readers has noted rightly on this.
29:27¹ ^ possibly a “great snapping,” as in someone who is so very angry they lost it and “snapped,” or the words could be compared to the English idiom “backlash,” “a backlash of anger.” From the verb קצר qtsr “to break, snap off” (BDB).
30:1¹ ^ אֲשֶׁר...שָׁמָּה a̓sher...shammah = “which ...thereunto.”
30:3¹ ^ See 30:1¹.
30:9† ^ הוֹתִיר hōti̱r = he will have made left over, i.e. to produce left overs, more than needed. From the verb יתר ytr.
30:12† ^ Compare Rom. 10:6. “And the righteousness from faithfulness likewise says, ‘You should not say in your heart, “who shall ascend into the heaven.”’ This is to bring Messiah down.”
30:14† ^ הַדָּבָר hadav̱ar. Compare Rom. 10:17, “Therefore, faithfulness is by listening, and listening is through the word of Messiah” (דְבַר־הַמָּשִׁיחַ).
30:14‡ ^ Compare Rom. 10:8, “But what does it say? ‘The Word is near year, in your mouth, and in year heart,’ which is the word of faithfulness which we are preaching, that if you should confess with your mouth A̓dōnai Yēshūa̒ and faithfully trust in your heart, because the Almĭgty has raised him from the dead, you will be saved.” Therefore, in order to repent and be saved, one must support themselves on the resurrection power of Messiah.
30:15‡ ^ The Hebrew is considerably more emphatic than appears in the English: אֶת־הַחַיִּים e̓t-haḥayyi̱m = this: the life (and this: the good). The text is speaking of ultimate life, which is Messiah, and ultimate death, which is eternal loss: “and this: the death, and this: the evil.”
31:11ᵅ ^Read: לִרְאוֹת. See Exodus 23:15†.