MISB First Samuel

Translated by Daniel Gregg

First Samuel 1

1 Then, there was one man from Ha-Ramah-tayim Tsōphi̱m, from the hill country of E’phrayim. And his name was E’lqanah son of Yerōḥam, son of E’li̱hū’, son of Tōḥū, son of Tsūph, an E’phrati̱. And he had two wives. The name of one was Ḥannah, and the name of the second was Peni̱nnah. Then, there were children for Peni̱nnah, and for Ḥannah no children.
3 And that man had ascended from his city from days to days to cause himself to be worshiping, and to sacrifice to Yăhwēh of Armies in Shilōh. And there were the two sons of Ē‘li̱, Ḥophni̱ and Phinḥas, priests to Yăhwēh. Then it was the day. Then E’lqanah sacrificed, and he had given to Penni̱nah his wife, and to all her sons and her daughters, portions. And to Ḥannah he gave one portion, ¹Nonetheless, Ḥannah he was ²loving.
5b [Edit vs 5-19] 5b  And Yăhwēh had shut her womb. And she made her to be irritated by provoking her. Also frustrated in being passed over, she was explosively angry, because Yăhwēh had shut her womb in. And so it happened year by year, by reason of her going up into the house of Yăhwēh, she would provoke her. Then she wept and would not eat.
8 Then E’lqanah her husband said to her, “Ḥannah, why do you weep and why do you not eat and why must your heart break? Am I not better to you than ten sons?” Then Ḥannah rose up. Afterward she ate in Shilōh, and afterward she drank.
9b 9b Now Ē‘li̱ the priest was sitting on the seat by the doorpost of the temple of Yăhwēh. 10  And she was bitter of soul, and she prayed to Yăhwēh and weeping she wept. 11  And she vowed a vow and said, “Yăhwēh of hosts, if looking you will look on the affliction of your maidservant and you remember me, and not you will forget your maidservant, and will give to your maidservant the seed of men, then I will give him to Yăhwēh all the days of his life, and no razor shall go up upon his head.”
12 12  And it was when she made a great deal praying before Yăhwēh, that Ëli was watching her mouth. 13  And Ĥannah—she was speaking in her heart. Only her lips were trembling, and her voice was not heard. So Ëli regarded her as drunk. 14  Then Ëli said to her, “How long will you make yourself drunk? Turn away your wine from upon you.”
15 15  But she answered and she said, “No, my lord, I am a woman fierce of spirit; and wine and liquor have I not drunk, but I pour out my soul before Yăhwēh. 16  Do not take your maidservant as the face of a daughter of worthlessness! For from the greatness of my complaint and my vexation I have spoken until now.”
17 17  Then Ëli answered and said, “Go in peace; and may the Almĩghty of Israel grant your petition which you have asked near him.” 18  And she said, “Let your maidservant find favor in your eyes.” So the woman went on her way and she ate, and her sad faces were no longer on her.
19 19  Then they arose early at the daybreak and they worshiped before Yăhwēh, and they returned, and they entered into their house in the Height. And Elkanah was intimate with Ĥannah his wife, and Yăhwēh remembered her.
20 20 Then it was at the circuit of the days. Then, Ḥannah conceived. Then she bore a son. Then she called his name Shemū’ēl, saying, “Because from Yăhwēh I have asked for him.” 21 Then the man E’lqanah went up and all his house to sacrifice to Yăhwēh the sacrifice of the days and his vow.
22 22 And Ḥannah had not ascended, because she had said to her husband, “Until the lad will be weaned, then I will have made him come, and we will have seen the face of Yăhwēh. And he will have dwelled there until time immemorial.

1 Samuel 15

29 29 And also the Eminence of Yisra’ēl will not make to be falsehood, and will not be sorry, because he is not a man to be repentant.

First Samuel 20

1 Then Daυid fled from Nayōt in Ramah. Then he came. Then he said to the face of Yehōnatan, “What have I done? What is my iniquity? And what have I sinned¹ before the face of your father, that he is making be sought my life!?”
2 Then he said to him, “Make it profane! You shall not be made to die. Behold, my father will do no great matter or small matter, and he will not uncover my ear. And what reason would my father hide this matter from me? This is not so.”
3 Then Daʋid swore himself still more. Then he said, “Knowing he has known, your father, that I have found favor in your eyes. Therefore, he says, ‘Do not let Yehōnatan know this, lest he be grieved.’ And truly it is as Yăhwēh lives, and as your soul lives, since there is about a step between me and between death.”
4 Then Yehōnatan said unto Daʋid, “Whatever your soul may say, even I wish to do it for you.”
5 Then Daʋid said unto Yehōnatan, “Behold, the day to come is the new moon day, and I sitting I should sit with the king to eat, and you will have sent¹ me, and I will have been hidden in the field until the third setting. If noticing he will notice¹ me, your father, then you will have said, ‘Asking he asked himself from me, Daʋid, to run to Bētʰleḥem, his city, because the sacrifice of the days is there for all the family.’ If he will say thus, “Fine,”¹ then peace will be to your servant, and if angering he will become angry at it, then know that evil has been determined by² him. And you will have dealt loving kindness upon your servant, because into a covenant of Yăhwēh you have brought your servant with you, and if iniquity is in me, kill me yourself, and unto your father, why, in such a case, should you bring me?”
9 Then Yehōnatan said, “Make it profane to you, because if knowing I would know that evil had been determined by¹ my father to come upon you, then would I not make it plain to you!?”
10 10 Then Daʋid said unto Yehōnatan, “Who shall declare¹ it to me, or what if your father should answer you harshly?”
11 11 Then Yehōnatan said unto Daʋid, “Walk, and let us go out to the field. Then they went, the two of them, to¹ the field.”
12 12 Then Yehōnatan said unto Daʋid, “Yăhwēh Almĭghty of Yisra’ēl, be witness, that I will search out my father about this time tomorrow, or the third day. And behold, if it is well unto Daʋid, or¹ if not, at that time I will send unto you, and I will have uncovered your ear! 13 So may Yăhwēh do to Yehōnatan, and so may he add, if that it will be good¹ unto my father to do evil upon you! Then I will have uncovered your ear, and I will have made you be sent, and you will have walked away in² peace. And may Yăhwēh be with you, as that he has been with my father. 14 And not just if I continue alive. And not only will you do the loving kindness of Yăhwēh with me, and I will not die, but 15 also you shall not make cut off your loving kindness from with my house onward time immemorial, and not in Yăhwēh’s making cut off the enemies of Daʋid each from upon the face of the soil.”
16 16 Therefore, Yehōnatan cut a covenant with the house of Daʋid, saying, “And Yăhwēh will have made it to be required from the hand of Daʋid’s enemies.” 17 Therefore, Yehōnatan made added to make Daʋid swear, on his love of him. As the love of his own soul he had loved him.
18 18 Then Yehōnatan said to him, “tomorrow is the new moon and you will have been noticed, because your seat will be noticed. 19 And having made to be the third setting you will descend quickly, and you will have come unto the place which you had hid there on the day of the previous deed, and you shall have remained beside the stone A̓zel. 20 And I will shoot three of the arrows aside it, as sending¹ for myself to a target. 21 And, behold, I will send the lad, saying, ‘Go, find the arrows.’ If saying I will say to the lad, ‘Behold, the arrows are beyond you and hither, take it, and come, because there is peace to you, and nothing is the matter, as Yăhwēh lives. 22 And if I may say thus to the boy, ‘Behold, the arrows are beyond you and further, go, because Yăhwēh has made you to be sent away. 23 And the matter which we have spoken, I and you, behold, Yăhwēh is between me and between you onward time immemorial.”
24 24 Then Daʋid hid himself in the field. Then it was the new moon feast. Then, the king sat over the bread to eat. 25 Then, the king sat upon his seat, as occassion by occassion, at the wall seat. Then Yehōnatan stood up. Then A̓v̱nēr sat by Sha’ūl’s side. Then the place of Daʋid was noticed. 26 And Sha’ūl had not spoken anything on that day, because he had said, “It is an accident. He is unclean. It is because he is not clean.”
27 27 Then it was in the day after of the new moon feast, the second day. Then Daʋid’s place was noticed. Then Sha’ūl said unto Yehōnatan his son, “What reason comes¹ not the son of Yishai, even yesterday, even today, unto the bread?”
28 28 Then Yehōnatan answered Sha’ūl, “Was asking, he has asked himself, Daʋid from¹ me to go even to Bētʰleḥem. 29 Then he said, ‘Send me¹ please, because a sacrifice of the family is for us in the city, and my brother, he has made be commanded to me, and now, if I have found favor in your eyes, may I be escaped, please, and may I see my brothers.’ Consequently, he has not come unto the table of the king.”
30 30 Then burned the anger of Sha’ūl against Yehōnatan. Then he said to him, “Son of a perverted woman¹ of rebellion! Have I not known that you are choosing ²the son of Yishai to the shame of the nakedness of your mother?! 31 Because all the days which the son of Yishai is living upon the soil, you shall not be established, you and your kingdom! And now send and take him unto me, because a son of death he is!”
32 32 Then Yehōnatan answered Sha’ūl his father. Then he said unto him, “For what should he be made to die? What has he done?”
33 33 Then Sha’ūl hurled¹ the spear upon him to strike² him. Then Yehōnatan knew that it³ had been determined from° his father to make Daʋid die. 34 Then Yehōnatan arose from¹ the table in burning anger, and he had eaten, on the second day of the month, no bread, because he had been grieved for² Daʋid, because his father had disgraced him. 35a Then it was in the daybreak.
35b 35b Then Yehōnatan went out to the field at the appointed time of Daʋid, and little lad with him. 36 Then he said unto his lad, “Run, please find the arrows which I am shooting. The lad had run. And he had shot the arrow to make it cross over him. 37 Then the lad came up to the place of the arrow which Yehōnatan had shot. Then Yehōnatan called after the lad. Then he said, “Is not the arrow beyond you, and further? 38 And Yehōnatan called after the lad, Make speed, haste, stand not. Then Yehōnatan's lad gathered up the arrows, and came to his master. 39 But the lad knew not anything: but Yehōnatan and Daʋid knew the matter. 40 And Yehōnatan gave his weapons unto his lad, and said unto him, Go, carry them to the city. 41 The lad went and Daʋid rose out of a place toward the south side, and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed himself three times: and they kissed as a man with his friend, and wept as a man with his friend, while Daʋid wept the most. 42 And Yehōnatan said to Daʋid, Go with Shalom, because we have sworn, the two of us, we in the name of Yăhwēh, saying, Yăhwēh shall be between me and between you, and between my seed and between your seed, till time immemorial. And he arose and departed: and Yehōnatan went into the city.

First Samuel 21

1 Then came Daʋid to Nōv̱ unto A̓ḥi̱meleḳ the priest. Then A̓ḥi̱meleḳ trembled forth to meet¹ Daʋid. Then he said to him, “What reason are you alone, and no man with you?”
2 Then Daʋid said to A̓ḥi̱meleḳ, the priest, “The king has made be commanded me a matter. Then he said unto me, ‘Let no man know anything of the matter which I—I send¹ you, and which I have made be commanded you, and the lads—I have made be appointed² unto a definite undesignated³ place.’ And now what is that under your hand? Five loaves? Put them¹ in my hand or whatever is found.”
4 Then the priest answered Daʋid. Then he said, “There is no common bread up¹ under my hand, except holy bread. It is here if the lads have been watched, surely from women.”
5 Then Daʋid answered the priest. Then he said to him, “Yea, no woman is being retained for¹ us, as of yesterday, or the third day in my going out. And they make be the gear of the lads holy, and it is only a common journey. And yea since it is today° there will be a consecration on the gear.”
6 Then the priest gave to him the holy bread, because there had been no bread there, except the bread of the presence¹ that was being made to turn aside from before the face of Yahweh to set² hot bread, on the day of its being taken. And there, a man from the servants of Sha’ūl was, on that day being retained before the face of Yăhwēh. And his name was Dōē̓g the E̓dōmi̱, the mighty one of the shepherds which belonged to Sha’ūl.


1:3† ^And that man had ascended from his city from days to days to cause himself to be worshiping, and to sacrifice to Yăhwēh of Armies in Shilōh.† Most translations say, “from year to year,” and incorrectly so. It means “year to year,” to be sure, but by not putting “days to days,” the definition of a year is shortchanged. This is most important because the traditions of men have undermined the definition of the year. The year is so many days according to scripture, and the boundary of the year is from one set of days unto the next set of days, i.e. “from days to days.” So when you are in the last set of days, you are in last year. When you are in the new set of days, you are in this year. The year is defined by so many days. It is not defined by so many months. A regular year is 365 days and a leap year is 366 days. For when the year begins, see vs. 20.

1:5¹ ^Read text with LXX: אפס, cf. 2Sam. 12:14, BHS. The LXX also might support the reading: כְּפִּיָם, according to their mouth, = κατα προσωπον.

1:5² ^Read text as a participle with different points: אֹהֵב.

1:20‡ ^Then it was at the circuit of the days.‡ Refer to vs. 3, “from days to days.” A year 365 or 366 days (like a month is 29 or 30 days). Like a month, the year has a beginning point. And this is called the “circuit of the days.” The sun begins its annual cycle at the spring equinox, and then at the next spring equinox it repeats all the same movements. The cycle takes 365 days in a normal year and 366 days in a leap year. In ancient times, the first day of the year occurred when the sun first set due west in the spring.

The first day of the year is determined by observational methods, much like the new crescent is sighted for the new moon. The non-arbitrary direction of due west is used to determine the start of the sun’s cycle. The observer uses a large platform or level space with a clear view of the horizon all around. The center of it is the observers location. The observer marks the location of sunrise and sunset on the days of the solstice. The angles formed by these points and the observation point are bisected to find a north-south line. Then a perpendicular line is drawn to the north-south line through the observations point. The perpendicular is the east-west line.

Once the western direction is determined, a marker (usually a large rock) was set up on the edge of the observational observatory. It was then when the sun set at precisely this point on the horizon that the new year began.

The Jewish Rabbis and Christian Scholars have allowed these truths to fall into confusion and this has produced many competing factions ignorant of the truth in one degree or another, and promoting false definitions of when a year begins, and how the calendar is to be regulated. The devil is the author of confusion, and there is but one reason that he promotes it. The false traditions derived from the confusion serve to confuse the times and seasons of Yĕshūa̒’s death and resurrection. Also they confuse the history of Yisra’ēl, and prophetic times and seasons. Satan does not want anyone to understand them correctly! Because understanding confirms ones faithfulness to Mĕssiah.

There are many who belittle the business of solving chronological and calendar difficulties. They observe that matters for them are controversial, and if they would open their ears and see with their eyes, then they would understand that the end of the matter is essential to faithfulness to Yĕshūa̒, and correct observance of his commandments. Nothing (in the objective sense) smashes Satan’s lies faster than a correct understanding of history, chronology, and the calendar, and the appointed times in Scripture. For this reason Satan’s rage against the appointed times and the calendar the governs them is second only to the fact that Mĕssiah died for our sins and rose again. For latter truth depends of the former truth.

If therefore, you come away from a calendar or chronological controversy feeling bitter, remember that that bitterness is caused by the lies Satan has sowed by means of false tradition, false prophets, and false teachers. And you have to be careful about accusing either side of mere men in a dispute of evil motives. One side may be as innocently deceived as the other side is correct. And among the deceived the real enemy lies in wait ready to cause his damage and collateral emotional stress. That is because without war there is no peace, just as Mĕssiah said. And without fighting the prisoners of the lie cannot be delivered.

1:22† ^Read: נִרְאֶה. The Niphal reading in the text is incorrect. See Exodus 23:15†. Ḥannah expresses the hope that she will see Yăhwēh in accord with other passages. That hope was fulfilled in the case of the boy, who saw the Mĕssenger of Yăhwēh at the side of the incense-smoke altar. Her hope is not in vain, because the promise remains for the age to come.

The reading of the traditional text does not accord with the Hebrew. Even with the pointing of the MT, the Hebrew sounds like this, “And we will be seen the face of Yăhwēh.” (וְנִרְאָה אֶת־פְּנֵי יהוה). The text corrected reads: וְנִראֶה אֶת־פְּנֵי יהוה.

20:1¹ ^ Read: חָטָֽאתִי ḥata’ti̱.

20:2† ^ חָלִילָה ḥali̱lah. Ad profanum; what a sacrilege! In English one might say “[profanity] No!” The word may be illustrated from an irregular Hiphil of חָלַל ḥalal (to profane), viz. הַחֲלִילֶהָ* after the imperative pattern for אָכַל with a 3fs suffix: הַאֲכִילֶֽהָ. Thus it means “Make Profane it.”

20:5† ^ מָחָר maḥar; or “tomorrow.” The word refers to the next literal day, dawn to dusk, or time to come, hereafter. In the calendar below, David is speaking to Yehōnatan on the 29th day of the month of Adar II, which was a Tusday evening. The moon was seen where the arrow ↑ is marked, and the conversation took place at the first bullet ●. The new moon day, or new moon feast, therefore, is anticipated by David to happen on the next day, marked “1” or “New Moon.” The reader should note that days are deliminted by bars │ from daybreak to daybreak. This is according to the ascending offering (daily offerings) for each day (cf. Lev. 6:9-10). The new moon ascending offering (i.e. burnt offering) starts at daybreak on APR 12, and continues to daybreak on APR 13, which is THU at daybreak.

The new moon is observed or seen in the setting dusk just before the new moon day, or feast, marking the first day of the month. This is APR 11 in this case, using the standard proleptic Julian calendar. Other details in the texts allow us to retro-calculate these dates, and will be discussed on their respective texts.

Month: I AVIV, 1069 BC 3071 A.M. Sab. Cyc: 5. Jub. Cyc: 33 Cycle No: 62
Q1: 0.022 B Q2: -9.000 Z LG:  51m W: 0.282' AL: 11.4 AV: 10.3
New Moon calculated for longitude: 35.17 and latitude 31.77
Location of calculations: Jerusalem Author: Daniel Gregg

       SUN       MON       TUE       WED       THU       FRI       SAB
        I        II        III       IV         V        VI        VII
       1069 BC             29  ↑●  │   1 ●   │   2 ●   │   3     │   4     │
     AVIV/NISAN          APR 11    │New Moon │     ◄   │  ◄      │  ◄      │
     │   5     │   6     │   7     │   8     │   9     │  10     │  11     │
     │         │         │         │         │         │         │         │
     │  12     │  13     │  14     │  15     │16-0-1   │17-0-2   │18-1-3   │
     │         │         │Passover │Passover │ Sheaf   │         │         │
     │19-1-4   │20-1-5   │21-1-6   │22-1-7   │23-1-8   │24-1-9   │25-2-10  │
     │         │         │7thULB   │         │         │         │         │
     │26-2-11  │27-2-12  │28-2-13  │29-2-14  │30-2-15  │
     │         │         │         │         │MAY 11   │

20:5¹ ^ made be sent. Piel.

20:5‡ ^ When David speaks of the day to come, he means the morning. See 1Sam. 19:10-12. His conversation with Yehōnatan took place at night, after they had seen the new moon, or after they had received news of it. The word חֹדֶשׂ ḥōdesh is not just used for the actual new moon. It is also used for the new moon day, or the new moon feast, which followed the night of the sighting. The new moon is first seen at the head of the new moon day or feast, i.e. in the night before it. The ascending offering of the new moon was put on the altar soon after daybreak on the new moon day (cf. Num. 28:11). These offerings burned all day and all the next night (cf. Lev. 6:9-10). Therefore, the sign of the new moon, the new crescent was seen the night before, and the offerings were made in the morning, and lasted until daybreak at the end of the next night.

The calendar days of the month, therefore, after the ordinary reckoning, are from dawn to dawn, excepting only Sabbaths, which are set apart staring the night before, and hence setting to setting. Whatever offerings accompanied the feast of the new moon would be eaten for a day and a night, or burned for a day and a night. Any festive offerings brought by the people would also follow the same schedule, and they who ate them would have to be ritually clean. A free will offering could be eaten for a day and night, and a day and night. It could not be eaten at or after dawn on the third day. Therefore, any freewill offering at the kings table could be eaten for two days. It was a freewill offering for the new moon day, and it was eaten on a second day. Ritual purity was required to eat it. At dawn on the third day, ritual purity was no longer required. But David encouraged Yehōnatan to be done feasting at sunset on the second day of feasting, which would be the third day from the evening they were talking making these plans. Yehōnatan could get away from the king near dusk for a little shooting practice, and no risk of David being pursued at night.

When David speaks of the “third setting” הָעֶרֶב הַשְּׁלִשִׁית hae̒rev̱ hasheli̱shi̱t, he is counting inclusively from the time they were talking and made all the plans. It was dusk on the 29th day of the month, and the new moon had just been seen by them, or reported to them. The first day of the month would be on the morrow.

20:6¹ ^ attending he will attend.

20:6‡ ^ זֶבַח הַיָּמִים zev̱aḥ hayyami̱m. “The days” here refer to the renewal of the year, since the year is reckoned at 365 or 366 days. The new year had fallen on the 17th of Adar II that year, and hence two days late for that Adar II to be the first month. I have provided a calendar below for Adar II that year. Israel at this time was holding a local sacrifices for the Passover and the festive offerings with it, even though the place where the priests were keeping the ark was not far way. It was because the Tabernacle had been destroyed, and no new sanctuary had been built. David’s plotted request, therefore, is to keep Passover with his family. He has asked for a two week vacation. And this is what Yehōnatan is supposed to tell the king. 1Sam. 1:20 לִתְקֻפוֹת הַיָּמִים liteqūfōt hayyami̱m, “at the circuit of the days,” is when the year beings, at the spring equinox. 1Sam. 1:21 mentiones the “sacrifice of the days” immediately after this, which is clearly the Passover. For these reasons, we know that David’s request was made in the first month of the year. The year is also known, 1069 BC from exact astronomical calculations, and from exact biblical chronology. The kingdom divided 390 years before the vision of Ezkiel (593 BC), i.e. in 983 BC. Solomon ruled 40 years and David 40. So David reigned in 1063 BC. He was fugitive for 7 years (1069-1063). The only other possible year astronomically is 1066 BC, and makes a too short time for David’s exile from the court. Willis Judson Beecher thought the date was 1068 BC, but this date was calculated without astronomical help.

Month: XIII ADAR_II, 1069 BC 3070 A.M. Sab. Cyc: 5. Jub. Cyc: 33 Cycle No: 62
Q1: 0.975 A Q2: -0.474 F LG:  84m W: 0.752' AL: 18.6 AV: 17.2
New Moon calculated for longitude: 35.17 and latitude 31.77
Location of calculations: Jerusalem Author: Daniel Gregg

        I        II        III       IV         V        VI        VII
                     ↑   │   1     │   2     │   3     │   4     │   5     │
       ADAR_II   MAR 13  │New Moon │         │         │         │         │
     │   6     │   7     │   8     │   9     │  10     │  11     │  12     │
     │         │         │         │         │         │         │         │
     │  13     │  14     │  15     │  16     │  17     │  18     │  19     │
     │         │         │ 365     │  366    │  1      │         │         │
     │  20     │  21     │  22     │  23     │  24     │  25     │  26     │
     │         │         │         │         │         │         │         │
     │  27     │  28     │  29 ↑   │
     │         │         │  APR 11 │

Parallel Julian Calendar with the days of the year numbered with their Julian
month and day equivalents. The first day of the year is on March 30. 
This can be verified in Stellarium 0.12.4 by watching the sun set at 270 degrees (West), which
indicates that the day is the new year (i.e. spring equinox). Please set the date
in Stellarium to -1068 (Stellarium uses a 0 year) 3/30. Time at 15:44:18. Location:
Israel. And use the default Espenak & Meeus (2006) delta T.

   │   SUN   │   MON   │   TUE   │   WED   │   THR   │   FRI   │   SAT   │
                       │ MAR 14  │ MAR 15  │ MAR 16  │ MAR 17  │ MAR 18  │ 13
                       │  351    │  352    │  353    │  354    │  355    │
   │ MAR 19  │ MAR 20  │ MAR 21  │ MAR 22  │ MAR 23  │ MAR 24  │ MAR 25  │
   │  356    │  357    │  358    │  359    │  360    │  361    │  362    │
   │ MAR 26  │ MAR 27  │ MAR 28  │ MAR 29  │ MAR 30  │ MAR 31  │ APR  1  │
   │  363    │  364    │  365    │  366    │  1      │  2      │  3      │
   │ APR  2  │ APR  3  │ APR  4  │ APR  5  │ APR  6  │ APR  7  │ APR  8  │
   │  4      │  5      │  6      │  7      │  8      │  9      │  10     │
   │ APR  9  │ APR 10  │ APR 11  │
   │  11     │  12     │  13     │
1066 BC is the only other year that agrees with the details of 1Sam. 20-21. 
But it is too short of a time for David’s life as a fugitive. 
Here is the calendar for 1066 BC.

Month: I AVIV, 1066 BC 3074 A.M. Sab. Cyc: 1. Jub. Cyc: 36 Cycle No: 62
Q1: 0.154 B Q2: -9.000 Z LG:  57m W: 0.305' AL: 11.5 AV: 11.5
New Moon calculated for longitude: 35.17 and latitude 31.77
Location of calculations: Jerusalem Author: Daniel Gregg

        I        II        III       IV         V        VI        VII
                               ↑   │   1     │   2     │   3     │   4     │
     AVIV/NISAN            APR 8   │New Moon │         │         │         │
     │   5     │   6     │   7     │   8     │   9     │  10     │  11     │
     │         │         │         │         │         │         │         │
     │  12     │  13     │  14     │  15     │16-0-1   │17-0-2   │18-1-3   │
     │         │         │Passover │Passover │ Sheaf   │         │         │
     │19-1-4   │20-1-5   │21-1-6   │22-1-7   │23-1-8   │24-1-9   │25-2-10  │
     │         │         │7thULB   │         │         │         │         │
     │26-2-11  │27-2-12  │28-2-13  │29-2-14  │30-2-15  │
     │         │         │         │         │ MAY 8   │

20:7¹ ^ טוֹב tōv̱; or “Good,” or “Well.”

20:7² ^ מֵעִמּוֹ mēi̒mmō = from with him.

20:9¹ ^ מֵעִם mēi̒m = from with.

20:10¹ ^ = make plain.

20:11¹ ^ a preposition is typically omitted before “the field.”

20:12‡ ^ Both Yehōnatan and Daʋid have agreed on the reckoning of the third day, which is the day after tomorrow. The calendar illustrates:

       SUN       MON       TUE       WED       THU       FRI       SAB
        I        II        III       IV         V        VI        VII
       1069 BC             29  ↑●  │   1 ●   │   2 ●   │   3     │   4     │
     AVIV/NISAN          APR 11    │New Moon │     ◄   │  ◄      │  ◄      │

They are speaking at the first bullet ↑●, just after the new moon has appeared. Tomorrow is the second bullet 1 ●, and the third day, at the setting is the third bullet 2 ●, at sunset on the second day of the month, which is Thursday at sunset. This chronology is also secured from Daʋid counting backwards from the Sabbath ◄.

20:12¹ ^ = and.

20:13¹ ^ = make good. Hiphil.

20:13² ^ = to.

20:18† ^ He uses tomorrow in the ordinary English sense, meaning the next morning. For in this exact sense David’s wife had used the term, while it was night. See 1Sam. 19:10-12. By the word חֹדֶשׁ ḥōdesh, he does not mean the sighting of the crescent. He means the new moon feast. This extension of the term new moon is like the extension of the term “fire” אֵשׁ ē̓sh to mean “a fire offering,” and חַטָּאת ḥatta̓t “sin” to mean “a sin offering,” or the term עֹלָה ō̒lah “a going up” to mean “a going up offering.” The word “offering” is seldom specified in Hebrew. BDB defines the term as “1. new moon = day, time, of new moon, as religious festival 1 S 20:5, 20:18, 20:24, 20:27, 20:34; Ho 5:7, Am 8:5, 2K 4:23, etc, 2. month.”

20:20¹ ^ making be sent.

20:19† ^ He is counting inclusively from that very evening, a day being reckoned from daybreak to daybreak. See diagram at note 20:5†. By mentioning only the word “third” שִׁלַּשְׁתָּ shilashta, “you will have made to be the third,” Yehōnatan is confirming Daʋid’s time of appointment, at setting on the third day (cf. vs. 5).

20:25† ^ We don’t know exactly why he stood up, but it is evident that he sat down again, whether in the the same seat or not, we do not know. After A̓v̱nēr sat by the king, then the situation must have been unusual enough that the king noticed the missing man.

20:27† ^ Either the second day of the feast, or the second day of the month. It may just be the second day of the month, and Daʋid was expected to be there whether he was clean or not. It may be that they had a voluntary sacrificial offering the second day left over from the first day.

20:27¹ ^ בָּא ba, v̱a. I read this as a participle, “is coming not,” or “comes not” rather than perfect, “has not come.”

20:28¹ ^ from with.

20:29¹ ^ make me be sent. Piel.

20:30¹ ^ נַעֲוַת הַמַּרְדּוּת na‘awat hammardūt. The feminine gender of the two words requires the inclusion of the English word woman. The article on the second word is generic, meaning “the rebellious kind.”

20:30² ^ to the son of.

20:33¹ ^ made cast. Hiphil.

20:33² ^ make smitten. Hiphil.

20:33³ ^ הִיא hi̱̓ = she, it, i.e. “evil.”

20:33° ^ מֵעִם mēi̒m = from with.

20:34¹ ^ מֵעִם mēi̒m = from with.

20:34² ^ אֶל e̓l = unto.

20:35† ^ or “daybreak;” בַבֹּקֶר v̱abōqer. With little artificial light, ancient peoples began their days much earlier The definition of v̱abōqer in Hebrew may not be pushed past 9 a.m. without straining its meaning. The term may refer to the earliest dawn, sunrise, or a few hours after it. On a feast day, there might be several meals, and Sha’ūl knows that his presumed excuse for Daʋid has run out at sunset at the end of the first day of the new moon. He therefore inquires at the earliest meal on the second day, and presumes that Daʋid should be there, because he is best buddies with Yehōnatan, or because it was customary for Daʋid to take every meal with the king. Sha’ūl’s question to Yehōnatan, the answer, and Sha’ūl’s murderous rage must have happened very early, because Yehōnatan ended up fasting all that day. And neither could Yehōnatan afford to act glum until he had sounded out his father. So the fact he did fast all day, also confirms that the incident took place early.

20:35‡ ^ לְמוֹעֵד lemō‘ad = “at the appointed time.” This was at the setting of the third day, counting inclusively from the sighting of the new moon. The appointment time is given in vs. 5, “until the third setting,” and futher confirmed by Yehōnatan in vs. 19. The time is necessary as dusk will help Yehōnatan in his ruse, as apparently he suspects he is being watched, and now is under orders to arrest Daʋid, and also should Daʋid need to escape again, he will have the night to get away. It is therefore the case that vs. 35a is a note on the time of Sha’ūl’s rage, and not a time for Yehōnatan’s reporting to Daʋid. Yehōnatan tells the lad to hurry, presumably because it is dusk, and the lad will not find the arrows if it is too dark. Further, he has the perfect excuse to be short with the lad, and make it look like he needs some time alone.

Even if I am incorrect that the time note goes with the previous paragraph, the implication would only be that Yehōnatan moved the appointment sooner, that it is not mentioned in the narrative, and that Daʋid somehow knew about this change. This is fairly an impossibility, but just suppose it. In said case the match of the forward three day count ● with the reverse three day count ◄ (cf. 21:5‡) on APR 13 that year is still the same.

21:1¹ ^ לִקְרַאת liqra̓t = to call on.

21:2¹ ^ = make be sent. Piel.

21:2² ^ יוֹדַעְתִּי yōda̒ti̱ = made be known I have. Poel, a Piel variant. The word “appointed” is used because English “know” cannot be bent this far without to much awkwardness.

21:2³ ^ פְּלֹנִי pelōni̱ “one defined, a particular one” (BDB); אַלְמוֹנִי a̓lmōni̱ = not counted, not enumerated, from אַל (not) and מָנַה (to count).

21:2† ^ It appears that the last clause is also supposed to be what the king said, and that David is keeping the location secret, and not that David himself has appointed a secret place to them.

21:3¹ ^ A pronoun is often omitted after a verb when it is obvious what the object of the verb is. David thought the priest was carrying bread or food, and asks the question, and by this point in the conversation, he has notices that he is carrying five loaves, and he practically demands them.

21:3‡ ^ The priest, apparently is carrying the loaves on a tray or platter of sorts, and he is keeping them from sliding off by placing his hand on top of them, just having brought them out of the holy place when he meets David. The loaves may be covered with a cloth, the priest’s hand atop holding down the cloth, and keeping the loaves from sliding, or perhaps keeping the cloth from blowing off. David comes close and finally can see that five loaves are beneath the priest’s hand. David sees just what he needs. The number is mentioned, because that is how many loaves the priest is transporting at the moment, and they can be plainly counted. David then suspects it may be the holy bread, and he adds the suggestion, “or that being found,” אוֹ הַנִּמְצָא ō̓ hannimtsa̓, to give the priest a little leeway in the face of his demand. David was acting just like an officer who makes demands in the name of national security.

21:4¹ ^ אֶל־תַּחַת e̓l-taḥat = unto under. On this combination, see Lev. 14:42; Judges 6:19; 1Ki. 8:6; Jer. 38:11; Ezek. 10:2; Zech. 3:10. I see no reason for the vauge English translation “on hand” here and in vs. 3. Modern translators appear to be translating with a philosophy that vaugeness is good, which is an unfortunate result of the higher critics, whose favorite word is “maybe,” and which has no desire to figure out the precise meaning of the text.

21:5¹ ^ or “being restrained by us.” The assurance is given that sufficent time has passed for ritual purification.

21:5‡ ^ David counts backward three days and says that is when he set out. Friday is yesterday to him, and Thursday is the third day to him, when he set out. He also counted forward from his first conversation with Yehōnatan, when the new moon was sighted on a Tuesday evening. The second evening was Wednesday, when Saul thought David had a valid excuse of being unclean, and the third evening was Thursday, after Saul had his rage at Yehōnatan, and then Yehōnatan went out to shoot at dusk. This is when David fled, after his final conversation with Yehōnatan.

Refer to the calendar below. The first calendar is the Hebrew month, and the second is a Julian Calendar parallel to it. The new moon day is marked on the day IV of the week. The small arrow ↑ in the night of day III marks the new crescent. This corresponds to APR 11. This is the first evening of the conversation with Yehōnatan. David will hide until the third evening on APR 13 (day V, Thursday). The dark shading ▒▒▒▒▒ marks nights, and the ~~~~~ mark days. The new moon day is marked “1” and the second day of the month “2”. David fled just after his final conversation with Yehōnatan at dusk at the end of the second day of the month, which was the third evening after the moon was sighted. These three evenings are denoted by the three ●’s. In Nōv̱, David says the day before yesterday was his going out, counting inclusively from the day of speaking backward to the third day. This is denoted by the ◄’s. Rest days are marked █████ for their night parts and ▀▀▀▀▀ for their day parts. Annual rest days are also marked ╫.

Month: I AVIV, 1069 BC 3071 A.M. Sab. Cyc: 5. Jub. Cyc: 33 Cycle No: 62
Q1: 0.022 B Q2: -9.000 Z LG:  51m W: 0.282' AL: 11.4 AV: 10.3
New Moon calculated for longitude: 35.17 and latitude 31.77
Location of calculations: Jerusalem Author: Daniel Gregg

       SUN       MON       TUE       WED       THU       FRI       SAB
        I        II        III       IV         V        VI        VII
       1069 BC             29  ↑●  │   1 ●   │   2 ●   │   3     │   4     │
     AVIV/NISAN          APR 11    │New Moon │     ◄   │  ◄      │  ◄      │
     │   5     │   6     │   7     │   8     │   9     │  10     │  11     │
     │         │         │         │         │         │         │         │
     │  12     │  13     │  14     │  15     │16-0-1   │17-0-2   │18-1-3   │
     │         │         │Passover │Passover │ Sheaf   │         │         │
     │19-1-4   │20-1-5   │21-1-6   │22-1-7   │23-1-8   │24-1-9   │25-2-10  │
     │         │         │7thULB   │         │         │         │         │
     │26-2-11  │27-2-12  │28-2-13  │29-2-14  │30-2-15  │
     │         │         │         │         │MAY 11   │

   │   SUN   │   MON   │   TUE   │   WED   │   THR   │   FRI   │   SAT   │
                         APR 11  │ APR 12  │ APR 13  │ APR 14  │ APR 15  │ 1
                                 │  14     │  15     │  16     │  17     │
   │ APR 16  │ APR 17  │ APR 18  │ APR 19  │ APR 20  │ APR 21  │ APR 22  │
   │  18     │  19     │  20     │  21     │  22     │  23     │  24     │
   │ APR 23  │ APR 24  │ APR 25  │ APR 26  │ APR 27  │ APR 28  │ APR 29  │
   │  25     │  26     │  27     │  28     │  29     │  30     │  31     │
   │ APR 30  │ MAY  1  │ MAY  2  │ MAY  3  │ MAY  4  │ MAY  5  │ MAY  6  │
   │  32     │  33     │  34     │  35     │  36     │  37     │  38     │
   │ MAY  7  │ MAY  8  │ MAY  9  │ MAY 10  │ MAY 11  │
   │  39     │  40     │  41     │  42     │  43     │	

21:5† ^ This would be the weapons of war and their camp equipment. As they are likely to become defiled in battle or raids, they reqularly, as a normal procedure, purify such equipment so that it will not defile the camp or anyone else. See Num. 31:19-24.

21:5° ^ i.e. the Sabbath. Everything will have been cleansed and purified on Friday, as a normal military procedure.

21:6¹ ^ הַפָּנִים hapani̱m = the faces.

21:6† ^ Or “that was being taken away.” The verb is a Hophal participle: הַמּוּסָרִים hammūsari̱m. The participle denotes ongoing action, or present tense action. It is passive, and so here rendered in the passive progressive, “being made to turn aside.” The Hophal is also causitive, hence the word “made.”

21:6² ^ לָשׂוּם lasūm. The verb here is an infinitive construct, and may be translated with the preposition “for setting,” or “to set.” Either way, it is stating the purpose of removing the old bread: to set new bread out. Evidently, the old bread was being removed, but the new bread had not been put in place yet. We can deduce from this that David approached the priest very near to noon on the Sabbath.

21:6‡ ^ “On the day of its being taken”: בְּיוֹם הִלָּקְחוֹ beyōm hillaqḥō. According to the Law, the bread was changed on the Sabbath. See Lev. 24:8, “On the day of the Sabbath. On the day of the Sabbath he will arrange it before the face of Yăhwēh continually, from the sons of Yisra’ēl, an everlasting covenant.” Further, the old bread from the previous week up to noon on the Sabbath was to be eaten by the priests in a holy place. See Lev. 24:9. We may simply substitute “the Sabbath,” then, for the words, “on the day of its being taken.” For that is the day when the old bread was taken to arrange new bread before the face of Yăhwēh.

Lunar Sabbath refuted: Daυi̱d’s arrival at the Sanctuary works out to the Sabbath on the 4th day of the month. For that is when the bread was changed for new bread according to Law. And he counts back to the day of his departure from Yehōnatan, and this counts back to the new moon day. The text says the bread was removed, “On the day of its being taken.” There was only one day that it could legally be taken, and that was the 7th day of the week. That it is the 4th day of the month is proved by statements in 21:5 and throughout chapter 20.

21:7† ^ The words “on that day” point back to “on the day” in vs. 6, indicating the Sabbath. If we investigate the other years, the results are as follows:

Year    New Moon  Date    MONTH      YEAR DAY  NEXT SABBATH ON   Daivd’s age
1075 BC FRI EVE   FEB 18  ADAR       326       1st day of month  17
1075 BC SUN EVE   MAR 19  AVIV       355       7th day of month  18		
1075 BC MON EVE   APR 18  ZIV        20        5th day of month  18
1074 BC THU EVE   MAR 9   ADAR II    345       2nd day of month  18
1074 BC FRI EVE   APR 7   AVIV       9         1st day of month  19
1074 BC SAT EVE   MAY 6   ZIV        38        7th day of month  19
1073 BC MON EVE   FEB 26  ADAR       334       5th day of month  19
1073 BC WED EVE   MAR 27  AVIV       364       3rd day of month  20
1073 BC THU EVE   APR 25  ZIV        27        2nd day of month  20
1072 BC SAT EVE   FEB 16  ADAR       323       7th day of month  20
1072 BC	SUN EVE   MAR 16  AVIV       352       6th day of month  21
1072 BC TUE EVE   APR 15  ZIV        17        4th day of month  21
1071 BC FRI EVE   MAR 6   ADAR II    342       1st day of month  21
1071 BC THU EVE   FEB 4   ADAR       312       3rd day of month  21
1071 BC SAT EVE   APR 4	  AVIV       6         7th day of month  22
1071 BC MON EVE   MAY 4   ZIV        36        5th day of month  22	
1070 BC TUE EVE   FEB 23  ADAR       331       4th day of month  22
1070 BC THU EVE   MAR 25  AVIV       361       2nd day of month  23
1070 BC FRI EVE   APR 23  ZIV        25        1st day of month  23
1069 BC SAT EVE   FEB 12  ADAR       320       7th day of month  23
1069 BC MON EVE   MAR 13  ADAR II    349       5th day of month  23
1069 BC TUE EVE   APR 11  AVIV       13        4th day of month  24
1069 BC THU EVE   MAY 11  ZIV        43        2nd day of month  24
1068 BC FRI EVE   MAR 2	  ADAR       338       1st day of month  24
1068 BC SAT EVE   MAR 31  AVIV       2         7th day of month  25
1068 BC MON EVE   APR 30  ZIV        32        5th day of month  25
1067 BC TUE EVE   FEB 19  ADAR       327       4th day of month  25
1067 BC THU EVE   MAR 21  AVIV       359       2nd day of month  26
1067 BC FRI EVE   APR 19  ZIV        21        1st day of month  26
1066 BC SUN EVE   FEB 9   ADAR       317       6th day of month  26
1066 BC MON EVE   MAR 10  ADAR II    346       5th day of month  26
1066 BC TUE EVE   APR 8	  AVIV       10        4th day of month  27
1066 BC THU EVE   MAY 8	  ZIV	     40        2nd day of month  27
1065 BC SAT EVE   FEB 28  ADAR       336       7th day of month  27
1065 BC SUN EVE   MAR 28  AVIV       365       6th day of month  28
1065 BC MON EVE   APR 26  ZIV        28        5th day of month  28
1064 BC WED EVE   FEB 16  ADAR       324       3rd day of month  28
1064 BC FRI EVE   MAR 18  AVIV       354       1st day of month  29
1064 BC SAT EVE   APR 16  ZIV        18        7th day of month  29
1063 BC MON EVE   FEB 6	  ADAR       314       5th day of month  29
1063 BC TUE EVE   MAR 7   ADAR II    343       4th day of month  29
1063 BC THU EVE   APR 6   AVIV       8         2nd day of month  30
1063 BC FRI EVE   MAY 5	  ZIV	     37        1st day of month  30

The months tagged AVIV are the first month of the year. However, I have included both months before and after each AVIV in this analysis. David’s first counted year as king was Tishri 1, 1063 BC. However, as the accession year method was used, David actually began to rule sometime in the 40th year of Sha’ūl, possibly a few months before this. A month that meets the requirements, is a month where the 4th day of the month lands on the Sabbath. In no case do any of the Aviv’s have a 5th day of the month on the Sabbath, which would become a 4th day if the moon was not seen on time. The possibilities are highlighted in red, and possible Aviv’s in bold red. We may immediately dismiss the ADAR II in 1063 BC, as David was a fugitive longer than a few months. Therefore the AVIV in 1066 BC comes into consideration. We may also dismiss the 1067 ADAR, because FEB 19th is surely too early for the 1st month of the year. Further, the 15th day of that ADAR is on day 342 of the year, a full 24 days before the new year. The 1069 BC AVIV fits just right. So we have to consider it. The 1070 ADAR is nearly as too early as the 1067 ADAR.

Postponing a month. Only 5th day cases need be considered for this, and in every case here, the year would have to be intercalated incorrectly to make it the first month:

Year Month  Arc Vision    Yallop    Day before  Possible added day?
1075 ZIV    21.3 degrees   A         C          not possible
1073 ADAR   12.1 degrees   A         F          Not a borderline case   
1071 ZIV    20.5 degrees   A         F          Previous month already 30 days
1069 ADARII 17.2 degrees   A         F          Previous month already 30 days
1068 ZIV    14.2 degrees   A         G          Previous month already 30 days
1066 ADARII 17.1 degrees   A         F          Not a borderline case
1065 ZIV    13.6 degrees   A         Z          Not a borderline case
1063 ADAR   17.8 degrees   A         G          Previous month already 30 days          

Back up a day. Only 3rd day cases need be considered for this. All cases of backing up from the 3rd day are impossible. In 1073 AVIV, an infrared telescope would be needed.

Year Month  Arc Vision    Yallop    Day before  Possible day before?
1073 AVIV   21.7           A        F           No, Not visible** q less than -0.293
1071 ADAR   10.7           B        Z           No, moon set before sun
1064 ADAR   12.6           A        Z           No, moon set before sun

Why then should we rule out 1066 BC?

            David’s life as a fugitive:
1069       Flight to Achish           1Sam. 21:10
           The cave of Adullam        1Sam. 22:1   
           With 400 men               1Sam. 22:2
           In Moab                    1Sam. 22:3
           (A prophet tells David to go to Judah)
1068       The forest of Hereth       1Sam. 22:5
           murders of the Priests     1Sam. 22:17
           David saves Keilah         1Sam. 23:2
           With 600 men               1Sam. 23:13
           The wilderness of Ziph     1Sam. 23:14
1067       At Horesh                  1Sam. 23:15
           In Maon                    1Sam. 23:24
1066       In Engedi                  1Sam. 23:29
           At Wildgoats’ Rocks        1Sam. 24:2
           Saul ceases pursuit        1Sam. 24:22
1065       In Paran                   1Sam. 25:1
           Watching over Shepherds    1Sam. 25:16
           At the hill of Hachilah    1Sam. 26:1
           Saul ceases 2nd pursuit    1Sam. 26:25
1064       Second flight to Achish    1Sam. 27:2
           David at Ziklag            1Sam. 27:6
1063       Eve of battle of Gilboa    1Sam. 29:11
           Amalek burns Ziklag        1Sam. 30:1
           Saul falls at Gilboa       1Sam. 31:5
           David becomes king of Judah

If we back up from Tishri 1063, then we have to go at least 4 months and a year (cf. 1Sam. 27:6) to come to the point of David’s second flight to Achish, king of Gath. This puts the flight in the spring of 1064. Then we ask if all the events since 1Sam. 21:1 can be crammed into the preceeding 24 months. Most conservative chronologers have allowed 6 to 11 years for David’s life as a fugitive. There are at least 12 locations mentioned in this time period. If they are to be put into 24 months, then David is changing locations every two months. They they are to be put into 5 years, then he arrives in each new location about every 5 or 6 months. To this we must factor in that Sha’ūl, with a pang of conscience, gave up the pursuit of David twice. Finally, by cutting down the chronology to 1066 BC, it appears that a hole is left in David’s life, because only two chapters are alloted from the slaying of Goliath, when David was a youth to his marriage and the serious beginning of trouble in chapter 19.

Let us therefore work backward from an assumed age of David in 1066 of 27 years old, and in 1069 of 24 years old. I count age years in at the turn of the year.

1Sam. 20:1     27 or 24? years old; David flees to Yehōnatan.
1Sam. 19:18    26 or 23? years old; David lives at Naioth away from Sha’ūl.
1Sam. 19:9     26 or 23? years old; Sha’ūl makes a personal attempt on David’s life.
1Sam. 19:8     25 or 22? years old; A season of war.
1Sam. 19:1     25 or 22? years old; Yehōnatan persuades his father not to kill David.
1Sam 18:30     24 or 21? years old; married to the king’s daugher, a season of war.
1Sam 18:12-14  22-23 or 19-20?; A few seasons of war at the most.
1Sam 17;       22 or 19?; David slays the giant.

Which makes more sense? Does David slay the giant at about 19, or is he eligible for call up and a grown man at 22? This then is the reason that careful scholars do not allow so short a time as three years for David to be a fugitive.