EHSV Psalms

Translation by Daniel Gregg

Psalms 1

1 Blessed is the man who has not been walking in the counsel of the wicked, and on the path of sinners he has not been standing, and in the assembly of scoffers he has not been sitting. But in the Law of Yăhwēh is his delight, and on his Law he meditates daily and nightly. And he will have been like a tree planted by channels of water, whose fruit he will give in his time, and his leaf will not wither, and all which he will do he will make prosper.
4 Not so the wicked, but they are like the chaff which the wind drives about. Therefore, the wicked will not rise in the judgment, and sinners in the congregation of the righteous.
6 Because Yăhwēh is knowing the way of the righteous. And the way of the wicked will perish.

Psalm 2

1 Why have the nations been rioting, and the peoples spewing propaganda vainly? The kings of the earth position themselves. And the rulers have been laying themselves a foundation together against Yăhwēh and against His Mĕssiah! Let us make to be pulled apart their fetters, and let us cast away from ourselves their cords.
4 The one sitting in the heavens will laugh. A̕dōnai̱ will mock them. At that time, he will make to be spoken unto them in his wrath, and in his hot anger he will make them to be dismayed, “And I, I have installed my king upon Tsi̱yōn, my holy mountain. I will make to be recounted about the order. Yăhwēh has said unto Me, ‘My Sŏn you are. Today I have brought you forth. Ask from Me, and I will give the nations for your inheritance, and for your possession, the ends of the earth. You will break them with a rod of iron, like the vessel of a potter you will make them to be shattered. 10 And now kings, wise up; correct yourselves judges of the earth! 11 Serve Yăhwēh in fear and rejoice with trembling. 12 Kiss the Sŏn lest he will be angry, and you will perish from the way, because will burn in a moment his wrath. Blessed are all seeking refuge in him.

Psalm 22

16 16 Because dogs have surrounded me, a congregation of evil doers have encircled me. They have bored through my hands and my feet.

Psalms 42

3 Has been thirsting my soul for the Almĭghty, for the living Gŏd. When will I come, so that I may see the face of the Almĭghty.

Psalm 81

1 For the choir director. On the Gitti̱t. By A’saph.
1b 1b  Make a shout to the Almĭghty our strength. Shout joyfully to the Almĭghty of Ya‘aqōv̱. Raise a song! Strike the tambourine, the sweet sounding harp, along with the bass harp. Blow at the new moon, the Shōfar; at the designated time; on the day of our feast, because it is a statute for Yisra’ēl, an ordinance of the Almĭghty of Ya‘aqōv̱. A testimony in Yōsēph he has established it.
5b 5b “In his going out over the land of Egypt, where the tongue of one I have not known, I heard, I relieved his shoulder of the burden. His hands were freed from the basket. You called in distress, and I rescued you. I answered you in the hiding place of thunder. I tested you at the waters of Meri̱v̱ah.” Selah.
8 “Hear, my people, and I will admonish you. Yisra’ēl, if you would listen to me! Let there be no strange god among you. Nor shall you worship any foreign god. 10  “I, Yăhwēh, am your Almĭghty, who brought you up from the land of Egypt. Open your mouth wide and I will fill it. 11  But my people did not listen to my voice. And Yisra’ēl did not obey me. 12  So I gave them over to the stubbornness of their heart, to walk in their own devices. 13  Oh that my people would listen to me, that Yisra’ēl would walk in my ways! 14  I would quickly subdue their enemies, and turn my hand against their adversaries.”
15 15  “Those hating Yăhwēh cower in fear to him. And may their time be to time immemorial. 16  But I would feed you with the finest of the wheat, and with honey from the rock I would satisfy you.”

Psalm 82

1 A Psalm of A̕saph.
1b 1b The Almĭghty stations himself in the congregation of Gŏd,¹ in the midst of the gods he will judge.
2 “Until when will you judge unjustly, and lift up the faces of the wicked?” Selah.
3 “Render judgment for the poor and orphan; for the afflicted and destitute do justice. Make there to be an escape for the poor and needy. From the hand of the wicked deliver them. (They do not know, and they do not understand. In darkness they walk about. Are shaken all the foundations of the earth.)”
6 “I, I have said, ‘Ye are gods, and sons of the Most High, all of you. But as A̕dam you will surely die, even like one of the princes ye will fall.’”
8 Arise Almĭghty! Judge the earth, because you will inherit among all the nations!

Psalm 93

1 Yăhwēh reigns majestically clothed.Yăhwēh has put on strength. He makes himself to be girded. Yea, you establish the world. You will not be shaken. Your throne is established from the past. From time immemorial you are.
3 The ocean tides have risen Yăhwēh. The ocean tides have lifted their sound. The ocean tides have lifted up their crashing. Above the sound of many majestic waters, above the breakers of the majestic sea, in the height is Yăhwēh.
5 Your witnesses are very faithful. At your house it is beautifully holy, Yăhwēh, for the length of all times.

Psalm 110

1 A Psalm of Daυi̱d.
1b 1b An utterance¹ of Yăhwēh to my A̕dōnai̱, “Remain at my right hand onward I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.” Yăhwēh will send the rod of your might from Tsi̱yōn. “Rule in the midst of your enemies!” Your people are volunteers in the day of your power, with the splendor of holiness, from the womb of the early dawn, to you as the dew of your youth. Yăhwēh has sworn himself, and he will not be sorry, “You are a minister of time immemorial concerning my cause, my King of Justice.
5 A̕dōnai̱ upon your right hand will have shattered, in the day of his wrath, kings. He will judge among the nations. He will have filled them with corpses. He will have shattered the chief head upon the earth. From the wadi-torrent in the way he will drink. Therefore, he will make high the head.

Psalm 139

12 12 Even darkness is not darkened beyond you, and night like the day shines. Darkness is like the light, 13 because, you have accessed my inward parts. You wove me in my mother’s womb. 14 I praise you because fearfully and wonderfully I have been made. Wonderful are your works, and my soul knows it well. 15 My bone structure had not been hidden from you, when I had been made in secret. I have been made to be woven, as if in the depths of the earth. 16 Your eyes have seen my unformed substances. And upon your scroll all of them were written, and the days they have been made to be formed, and not one in them is yet.


22:16† ^Psalm 22:17 in the LXX reads, “They dug through (ὤρυξαν) my hands and my feet.” But the MT says, “like a lion,” which lacks a verb or replaces the original verb. The correct word, “dug through” (which may be justly taken as bored out or bored through, functionally equivalent to “pierced”) was later found in the Dead Sea Scrolls (Nahal Hever: 5/6HevPs), and also is found in the Syriac. The form found the Nahal Hever fragment is כארו. It appears to me that the א is matres lectionis, a vowel letter for reading and not a root letter, or perhaps just a phonetic variant. In other words it is there simply to indicate a vowel. The word comes from the verb root כרה, which means “to dig out a hole,” and covers senses such as hew out and bore. The original text then would read כרו. And in fact BHS lists “pc Mss Edd כארו” and “2 Mss Edd כרו.” These are from 18th-20th century editions of O.T. by Kennicott and C. Ginsburg with a large number of variants, including a collection of variants by de Rossi. Someone suggested the א may be explained, “(1) even if we do not suppose any special verb כָּאַר, the form כָּֽאֲרוּ can be expanded from כָּֽרוּ l (כָּרָה) l כָּֽרֽוּ l = l (כוּר) l just in the same manner as רָֽאֲמָה, Zec_14:10 from רָמָה, cf. קָֽאֲמַיָּא Dan_7:16” (B-Hebrew).

In the Nahal Hever text the word for hands is spelled ידיה with an extra ה at the end. “Does this mean that the Nachal Hever manuscript has misspellings and can therefore not be trusted? No, because the Hebrew of the Qumran scrolls – according to the standard reference on the topic by Elisha Qimron (1986) – often use final h to mark final dipthongs. The dipthong in question is the דַי dai in יָדַי yadai” (onedaringjew).

It was noted in one source that the reading כרו was found in medieval Hebrew texts.

42:3ᵅ ^Read: אֶרְאֶה. The MT vowel pointing is incorrect. See Exodus 23:15†.

81:3‡ ^Blow at the new moon, the Shōfar; at the designated time; on the day of our feast,‡ According to Numbers 10:10, the trumpet was to be blown, “in the heads of your months,” “in your appointed times,” “over your ascending offerings,” and “over the sacrifice of your peace offerings.” The appointed times included the feast days. The list in Psa. 81:3 covers the same times.

the designated time = בַּכֵּסֶה. The Authorized Version, i.e. King James read the time appointed (and also “a long array of authorities” [Ellicot], including Aben Ezra, Jarchi, and Kimchi [Gill], Rashi [page 383: Gruber, 1998, “AT THE kesse, the day appointed, prepared and fixed for it. In the same vein ‘He will come home at the kesse’ (Prov. 7:20) {i.e.} at the appointed time which has been fixed.”]), evidently as a loan word into Hebrew from Aramaic. Jastrow gives the following entry: for “כֶּסֶה,כֶּסֶא” (pg. 652), “mark, distinction; marked, appointed time”; Jastrow cites this very Psalm text in the noun entry and the verb entry on page 652 (I כסה). The LXX seems to support an idea of the Aramaic word use: ευσημω, "clear, distinct", only it applies it to the Shofar, "distinct Shofar", or "clear sound of a Shofar", "with distinctness" (εν ευσημω), cf. Jastrow, “distinction” above. The Aramaic (borrowed to Hebrew here) means to blow the trumpet “on the mark,” or “distinctly,” or “sharply,” i.e. loudly at the appointed moment. We should not be surprised at the occurrence of an Aramaic term in Hebrew. Aramaic occurs often enough, or is borrowed often enough. For example the Aramaic word for son occurs in Psalm 2:23 “Kiss the Sŏn” ( בַר bar). The other use of the term in Psa. 81:3, in Proverbs 7:20 also supports the sense, “appointed time”: “He has taken a bag of money with him, and will come home on the appointed day.”

82:1¹ ^The Almĭghty stations himself in the congregation of ¹Gŏd. The text is similar to Psalm 110, i.e. “An utterance¹ of Yăhwēh to my A̕dōnai̱” (110:1). Only here it is the Almĭghty Sŏn who is stationing himself (נִצָּב, Niphal reflexive participle) in the “congregation of Gŏd” (בַּעֲדַת־אֵל) ba‘adat-Ē’l. But where we expect to see, “his congregation,” we see “congregation of ¹Gŏd” because the text is referring to the Făther. This is sometimes rendered “divine council” (e.g. Michael Heiser, ESV), which would have the sense that it is Yăhwēh’s council, but this sense is confusing with the idea of a council made up of divinities. But this is not the sense since E’l occurs in the singular. If the sense of a council of divinities were meant, then we would expect “congregation of the gods,” using the plural e̕lōhi̱m. The sense is that the Almĭghty Sŏn has stationed himself in the congregation of His Făther, and then the Sŏn addresses the created e̕lōhi̱m who have presented themselves (cf. Job 1:6). The Sŏn’s address continues through vs. 7, and then vs. 8 is the final statement of the Psalmist himself making the same point as Psalm 110:5-7.

82:6† ^I, I have said, “Ye are gods, and sons of the Most High, all of you. Yĕshūa̒ said, “Has it not been written in the Law, ‘I said, you are gods’? If he called them gods, to whom the word of the Almĭghty came (and the Scripture cannot be broken), do you say of him, whom the Făther sanctified and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming,’ because I said, ‘I am the Almĭghty Sŏn’? John 10:34-36. ● It is to be carefully noted that Yĕshūa̒ is not saying he is one of these other created e’lōhi̱m. Rather is merely raises the subject of the Psalm by referring to it, and asks if they are going to deny that the status and nature of the Mĕssenger Yăhwēh (מַלאַךְ יַהוֶה) is the same as that of the unseen Greater Yăhwēh. And clearly the subject angers Yĕshūa̒’s opponents, and they do not want to have any honest discussion of the subject.

Yĕshūa̒ confirms in his follow up words that he is indeed saying he is the Mĕssenger Yăhwēh, “If I do not do the works of my Făther, do not confirm your faithfulness to me; but if I do them, though you may not confirm faithfulness, then confirm the works, that you may know, and may be understanding that the Făther is in me, and I in the Făther.” (John 10:37-38). Firstly, he is saying that He is to receive ultimate loyalty, fidelity or faithfulness, because of who He is. Second, he is saying that if they are slow to commit to him on that basis, then at least they should be honest men and confirm that his deeds are from Yăhwēh, and that staying honest they might remain undefiled long enough to come to a real understanding of who Mĕssiah is. But again, they sought to resort to force to settle the argument they could not win using the Scripture (cf. John 10:39), and therefore they defiled their hearts with a dishonest response.

93:1† ^יַהוֶה מֹלֵךְ גֵּאוּת לֻבַּשׁ.

93:1‡ ^אַף־תָּכוֹן תֵּבֵל, בַּל־תִּמּוֹט

110:1¹ ^The word נְאֻם neū̕m is a noun. The sense is equivalent to “a profoundly solemn and authoritative divine utterance.”

110:1† ^An utterance¹ of Yăhwēh to my A̕dōnai̱, “Remain at my right hand onward I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”† This has all to often been interpreted as a time bound statement having a beginning and an ending, in which the Mĕssiah sits, beginning the time frame, and then when the enemies are defeated, he gets up again. “Remain at my right” or possibly “Stay on as my right hand.” The Sŏn is the right hand of the Făther, in the sense we say in English, “My son is my right hand man.” The Sŏn is not really sitting in any case. He is being the right hand of the Făther, by being Yăhwēh our Warrior, which means he is defeating the enemies in battle, and not literally sitting on the throne while he does it.

The Hebrew word עַד a̒d does not require a terminus ad quem, but simply means up to the point mentioned without confirming or denying continuance past the point. It is very close to the English word “onward” in certain uses, i.e. “Let us go onward hill top,” where one means the hilltop is onward one’s current position, and means to go to it. On the other hand one may mean “onward of of the hill top,” or even that one will go onward to the hill top and then onward yet more, so that the hilltop is simply a noted way point. Therefore, the idea that the Sŏn ceases to be the right hand of the Făther when the enemies are put down is faulty.

110:4‡ ^Yăhwēh has sworn himself, and he will not be sorry, “You are a minister of time immemorial concerning my cause, my King of Justice. This is quite a bit different than what people are used to, mainly on account of the forced interpretation of the book of Hebrews, which it is hereby noted, is wrongly called canonical. One that issue see the EHSV translation and commentary on Hebrews. Now we have to open our minds afresh and see what is really going on in Psalm 110:4.

Firstly, Yăhwēh is addressing A̕dōnai̱ (Mĕssiah) with the pronoun “You” at the beginning of his oath. That much is clear. But also we see that the text applies to Daυi̱d himself, as the anointed of Yăhwēh, who himself is a parable of Yĕshūa̒. Daυi̱d was appointed the minister of justice for Yisra’ēl, in the cause of Yăhwēh. He was his agent of justice. The sense of the word “cōhēn” (כֹהֵן) is not a minister of the altar, but a minister of justice. The usage of the word is broader than the sons of Lēυi̱, as it is seen that Daυi̱d had cōhəni̱m in his administration who were not Levitical Priests. Therefore, the word priest does not help us much as its definition is too narrow. A priest is strictly speaking an agent to speaks and acts for Gŏd. The ministry of Mĕssiah in the cause of justice will be to annihilate the enemies of the Almĭghty. This ministry has little to do with sacrifice at the altar, and more to do with the sacrifice of bodies mentioned in vs. 6.

The Hebrew word דִּבְרָתִי div̱rati̱ in the surest sense stands for a cause, or for the sake of. With the preposition on the end it means “my cause,” or “my sake” The usage is seen in Job 5:8, Ec. 3:18, 7:14, 8:2.

Is there any reference to Melchizedek at all in this text? Or does “My King of Justice” simply flow with the sentence without reference to Genesis 14? If the tradition of interpreting the words as Melchizedek was only found in Christian tradition, the answer would be obviously no, but there is also a long Jewish tradition, going back to the Dead Sea Scrolls interpreting the word to be Melchizedek. It may be, however, that these interpretations were sectarian. In the plain sense, it appears to me there is no connection, however, the connection may serve fertile ground for a drash or homily, as the Rabbis commonly made connections between things where the original text or author had no intention of making a connection. If the connection is put into the text, then a sense such as “according to the manner of Melchizedek” would be as much as the Hebrew could say, but then this begs the question of what was the manner of Melchizedek. Because he is not described as a warrior in Genesis 14, but simply as a minister (or priest), which surely included administrative duties and sacrificial duties.

I suggest that “Yăhwēh has sworn himself, and he will not be sorry, “You are a minister of time immemorial according to the manner of Malki̱tsedeq.‡” is an allowable literary double sense, so long as לעוֹלָם leō‘lam is undestood as time immemorial from the past to the future. This could also be translated, “for time immemorial.” In this case Daυi̱d himself is making an illustration or drash on the point that Melchizedek was a minster in ancient days with respect to Daυi̱d himself, and by making the connection Daυi̱d is saying that King Mĕssiah is forever a minister of justice, without beginning of days, or end of days. So there may be a connection here aimed at making the point that Mĕssiah is the Eternal One. The literaly allusion, then is a comparison. Mĕssiah is a minister from days לעוֹלָם leō‘lam like Melchizedek was. The doctrine is allowed, since other scriptures make the same point about Mĕssiah’s everlastingness.

It is beyond the pale, however, to derive a new doctrine from a text like this. Illustrations give the point of view of the illustrator, and should only be expanded based on valid teaching. Most false doctrine is derived from making speculative connections and taking symbolism too far. The Gnostics were especially adept at this. At this point in type, I will say I am suspicious of the LXX use of the word τάξιν, “order, arrangment.”

139:16‡ ^Your eyes have seen my unformed substances. And upon your scroll all of them were written, and the days they have been made to be formed, and not one in them is yet.‡ The Hebrew word גָּלְמִי should be repointed גָּלְמַי to be plural. כֻּלָּם יִכָּתֵבוּ refers back to “unformed substances.”

Daυi̱d is explaining that all the stages of fetal development were planned out in advance with a daily schedule by the Almĭghty. I solved this text about 20 years ago, but recently listened to a debate between John Sanders and James White, and Sanders did not know how to answer white on this text. Briefly, the text is not saying that the Almĭghty has preplanned every day of the Psalmist’s life. Rather it is saying that he has preplanned all the days of his fetal development!