EHSV Daniel

Translated by Daniel Gregg

Daniel 9

21 21 And while I was speaking in prayer, then the man Gav̱ri̱’ēl, whom I had seen in the vision in the beginning, I¹ being made wearied with weariness, touching unto me, came² about the time of the afternoon³ tribute offering. 22 Then, he gave understanding. Then, he made be spoken with me. Then he said, “Dani̱’ēl now I have gone out to give you insightful wisdom. 23 In the beginning of your petitions, the word went out, and I have come to explain, because you are treasured. Now ponder on the word, and discern the vision.
24 24 Seventy sevens¹ have been cut out for your people, and for your holy city, to make to be finished the ²transgression, to seal up ³sin, and to make be wiped away iniquity, and to make come everlasting righteousness, and to make sealed the vision, and the Prophet, and to anoint the holy of holies.
25 25 And you should¹ know and you should understand and you should pay attention², from the going out of word to restore and to build Yerūshalaim until Prince ³Mĕssiah, are seven sevens and sixty and two sevens. It will be restored, and it will have been built broadly and diligently, and in the distress of the times.
26 26 And after the sixty and two sevens Mĕssiah will be cut off, and none is for him.¹ And the city and the holy place, the people of a coming prince, will make ruined.² And its³ end is in the overflow, and until the end desolating war is determined.
27 27 And he will have made strong a covenant for the many, for one period of seven.¹ And at half of the period of seven, he will make cease sacrifice and tribute offering. And he will place upon a wing abominations making to be desolate, and until an annihilation, even being decided, will pour out upon the desolater.

Daniel 10

13 13 And the prince of the kingdom of Paras was standing against me¹ twenty and one days. And behold he Who-is-like-Gŏd, first °over the headmost princes, had come to help me. And I had been left there near the kings of Paras.


9:21¹ ^The context from Daniel 8:16 shows that it was Daniel who was wearied and fell into a deep sleep, and that it was Daniel who had to be awakened by touching. The traditional rendering of the phrase as “swift flight” appears highly suspicious, perhaps motivated by an attempt to change the identity of the messenger clearly identified as “the man.”

The New American Standard Bible translates, “While I was still speaking in prayer, then the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision previously, came to me in my extreme weariness about the time of the evening offering.” Also see HCSB, NET. All the other versions have fallen into the traditional trap.

9:21² ^The LXX supplies the verb προσήγγισέ, “approached.” Theodotian supplies the verb πετόμενος apparently on the basis of the tradition that Gabriel is an angel that flies, even though the text has identified him as a man.

9:21³ ^setting, i.e. about 3 p.m., the 9th hour.

9:21† ^The text identifies Gav̱ri̱’ēl as “the man.” See Genesis 18:1; Zech. 1:8, 10, 11. See also Ezek. 9:11, 10:2. His appearance in Luke 1 at the right of the altar of incense appears to me to be the next to the last pre-incarnate appearance of the Mĕssiah as the Messenger of Yăhwēh. The only thing that appears to be against this theory is 1. Tradition, and 2. The seeming proper name Gav̱ri̱’ēl. The scene of the prophet falling asleep and having to be touched connects with Revelation 1:19. The name difficulty is no different than Mĕssiah bearing the name of Michael, whom Paul clearly considers the one who will raise the dead with his voice. Both names are theophoric enough, “Mighty one of Gŏd,” and “Who is like Gŏd.” In fact if one takes Ē’l Gibbōr (אֵל גִּבּוֹר) “Mighty Gŏd” from Isa. 9:6 [5] and switches the word order then one compounds the name גבריאל. The oddest thing about the angel theory is that the Almĭghty has regularly visited his people as the Mĕssenger of Yăhwēh, and then suddenly with some of the most important prophecies, the theory requires him to abandon his habits to a lesser angel.

It appears to me that the Church went through a period where it wanted to deny any connection between the Messenger of Yăhwēh and the Mĕssiah. It still often does. And this denial also comes from Messianic Judaism, which seems overly influenced by Judaism in general and the opinions of the Rabbis, who likewise wish to deny the connection. Also, the Gnostics certainly wanted to deny any connection, because they were trying to cut the link between Yĕshūa̒ and the giver of the Law, and the one who appeared to Yisra’ēl, and to the Fathers. So there is adequate justification for the evolution of the tradition. However, it appears to contradict the usual messianic clues and connections in the Scriptural texts.

Finally, if the names Michael and Gabriel are merely alternate names for Messiah, then the naming of any created angelic being in Scripture save perhaps the Devil is eliminated, and also thereby the danger of exalting angelic beings minimized. It would appear then that the Bene Elohim have been cut out of the position as chief emissaries, and rendered support only for the main speaker, who is Mĕssiah. The exalting of Saints and Angels has ever been the heretical aim of the fallen bene Elohim. But the Almĭghty has promised they will die like men.

9:24¹ ^The original text had no vowel points, and would have looked like this: שבעים. The word is no more than the plural of the word “seven.” The NIV (New International Version) correctly translates, “Seventy sevens....” The word for seven in Hebrew is שֶׁבַע shev̱a̒. The plural of it, formed after the pattern of פֶּשַׁע, פְּשָׁעִים would be: שְׁבָעִים shev̱a‘i̱m. The word for seventy reduces the second vowel to shewa, and changes the first to hiriq: שִׁבְעִים, shiv‘i̱m. I propose then to introduce the vowel pointing שְׁבָעִים shev̱a‘i̱m to distinguish “sevens” (plural of the noun seven) from “seventy” (an adjective). And for pedantic reasons read the text as: שְׁבָעִים שִׁבְעִים, shev̱a‘i̱m shiv̱‘i̱m, “Seventy sevens.” What then is a “seven” and what is the plural of it?

In Deut. 15:9, the phrase “year of the seven” שְׁנַת־הַשֶּׁבַע means the same as “the seventh year.” Also the plural of the word seven, שֶׁבַע, is שְׁבָעִים (according to the convention above). The word means sevens. This can be pictured by the English speaker as if somone wrote the number 7 seventy times on a sheet of paper. Then one could say, “There are seventy sevens.” But then someone could write the sequence 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 out seventy times in a column on one sheet of paper. And still one could say, “There are seventy sevens,” along with “seventy sixes, fives, fours, and so on.” Therefore, it is not hard to see that a seven refers to the seventh year, and not necessarily to a period of seven years. In order to make the word refer to a period of seven years, the word must be spelled שָׁבוּעַ shavūa̒, as in vs. 27. The “seventy sevens” are seventy individual sabbatical years. We we see that this conception makes all the difference in the world in relation to the fulfillment.

9:24² ^This refers to the final rebellion of mankind at the end of the current age, and also Israel’s involvement in this rebellion, as foretold in Revelation. The righteous remnant flees into the wilderness (cf. Rev. 12).

9:24³ ^The word sin stands in the plural in the text: חַטָּאוֹת ḥatta’ōt. I take this to be an intensive plural, which is Sin!, or we may render it, “the Sin of sins.” To seal up sin would be to make an end of rebellion and to shut the devil away as foretold in Revelation.

9:24ᵅ ^To wipe away sin means to remove it. In this case forgiveness is not the only wiping away in view, but removal of sin, by destroying the wicked, and removal of sin by purifying the righteous. This is the theme of Yōm Kippūri̱m. Also in view is the forgiveness of sins, which was done by Mĕssiah in this time period.

9:24ᵝ ^This refers to everlasting righteousness for Israel in the age to come. It will commence with Mĕssiah’s return at the inception of the age to come.

9:24ᵞ ^The second use of the word “seal” here has the sense to affix attestation or testimony to, to confirm by way of testimony, and therefore to set one’s seal to the matter See John 3:33 for this use of the word. In some respects the vision is a mystery, and its details are sealed up until the time of the end, when all will be revealed.

9:24ᵟ ^The vision must refer to Daniel 8, the specific vision about the end of the age, which will be completed within the seventy sevens. Its details are “sealed” until they happen. When the seventy sevens are complete, all of it will have been unsealed.

9:24ᵨ ^I don’t think this term here should be taken as “prophecy,” but as “the prophet” as it literally says in Hebrew, נָבִיא nav̱i̱’. The term is a messianic term for Yĕshūa̒, who is the promised “Prophet” like Mōshēh. See Deut. 18:18; John 1:25. Seventy sevens are given for Israel to attest to the Mĕssiah and to affix their personal seal to his identity! See John 3:33.

9:24ᵡ ^The temple will be rebuilt, then it will be defiled and restored before the end of the seventy Sevens. The explanation in Dan. 9:27 makes it clear that the second Temple is not meant, but a third one to be built before the end.

9:24‡ ^Seventy sevens¹ have been cut out for your people, and for your holy city, to make to be finished the ²transgression, to seal up ³sin, and to make be wiped awayᵅ iniquity, and to make come everlasting ᵝrighteousness, and to make sealedᵞ the ᵟvision, and the ᵨProphet, and to anoint the holy of holies.ᵡ ‡ Seventy Sevens are seventy sabbatical years decreed from the time of the rebuilding of Jerusalem to the coming of Messiah, and the setting up of his kingdom. The counting of this time period comes in three units: seven sevens, sixty two sevens, and one seven. It has to be understood that that for seventy years Israel did not keep the land sabbaths, and therefore, the prophecy is related to the land Sabbaths that Israel did not keep. These seventy years do not occur all at one time, but periodically during those periods that Israel was in rebellion. However, if the sum of them is taken from all the periods of rebellion, then the sum is seventy.

The prophecy is cast as a parable according to the rebellion of Israel. Since Israel rebelled and repented, rebelled and repented, off and on again, so also will be the fulfillment of Daniel 9, and the divine promise to Israel! Historically, the seven sevens run from the rebuilding of Jerusalem to Ezra. Then the sixty two sevens run up to Messiah’s death and resurrection. Then the prophecy is suspended, during which period the city and temple are destroyed, and during which the city and temple will be restored again. And then after that the last seven before Messiah returns will take place. The gap between the 69th seven and the 70th seven is because the Almighty is waiting for Israel to repent. It is in fact a period of grace, or a grace period, justified by two things, 1. Israel was in and out of grace, and 2. The Almĭghty is gracious and waiting for Israel to repent before announcing the end! And this waiting is for the house of Israel to repent (a.k.a. Christians who have rejected his laws). The matter is charted out in the Daniel 9 Master Chart.

If Christians desire to return and actually confirm their faithfulness by obeying Mĕssiah (rather than loosing it completely or ending up with needless suffering due to half way obedience), then they must watch out that the house of Judah is not going to really point them in the right direction. With no offense to those few Jewish people who really are being faithful to Messiah, we must watch out for the leaven of the Rabbis. There are a lot of Christians that love Rabbinic calendars, and indeed, have them posted with the Rabbinic year on them. In the spring of 2015 the Rabbinic year is 5775. And this matter of the Rabbinic year 5775, believe it or not, is directly related to the Rabbinic explanation of Daniel 9. And you can be sure that it is not applied to Yĕshūa̒.

About AD 140-160 a Rabbi named Ḥalaphta put out a work called Seder Olam Rabba. His teacher was Rabbi Akiva, who perished in the Bar Kochba revolt because he had endorsed the messianic claims of Simon Bar Kochba. Ḥalaphta’s aim was to create a chronology of the world centered around the Rabbinic Jewish interpretation of Daniel 9. He therefore redacted the previous chronology which confirms that Yĕshūa̒ is the Messiah. To do this Ḥalaphta explains in Seder Olam that the seventy sevens of Daniel 9 is seventy sabbatical years from the destruction of the first temple to the destruction of the second temple. The time is 490 years according to Ḥalaphta. The idea was to date Daniel 9 from one temple to the other so that it would sound reasonable and therefore the prophecy could not be applied to Messiah!

Now truly, the first Temple was destroyed in 587 BC, and the second Temple in AD 70. The time period is 656 years. But Judaism, and I say Judaism, because it has adopted Rabbi Ḥalaphta’s theory, says the period is only 490 years (or 491) depending on who you talk to. The difference is 166 (or 167) years. And this 166 years, the Rabbis subtract from the history of the world, making it 166 years shorter than it really is. The part of history they shortened is the Persian period between the two Temples.

So since Seder Olam Rabba incorporates the Rabbinic view of Daniel 9 into the official Jewish chronology of the world since creation, there is a very large error in the Jewish year since creation, i.e. 5775 (in 2015). So to anyone who knows their history, the Jewish year 5775 contains a confession so to speak. It is a confession of the incorrectness of the Rabbinic version of Daniel 9, as well as a confession of the deletion of 166 years from the actual history of the world. There are some other things wrong with the Seder Olam Chronology that need not concern us here. I.e. we cannot simply add the 166 years back to the year 5775 to get the true age of the world. The point is that we need to understand the main argument behind the Rabbinically determined year of the world, and this is to make Daniel 9 fit an anti-Messiah interpretation of the prophecy.

9:25¹ ^וְתֵדַע wətēda̒: or “you will know.” The prophecy is framed as if it is not expected that one will understand it before it happens, but as one should or will know after the fact, and that will indeed be the case for most people.

9:25² ^The usage of the Hiphil וְתַשְׂכֵּל wətaskēl, implies that some thinking effort will have to be put to the matter in order to fully understand it. Like the first verb, “you will pay attention,” or “should pay attention.”

9:25³ ^No definite article stands in the clause, but simply מָשִׁיחַ נָגִיד mashi̱aḥ nagi̱d, where Mĕssiah fills the principle noun slot, and Prince, an attributive noun, is used like an adjective. It is perfectly natural for the phrase to refer to the promised Mĕssiah in this format.

9:25ᵅ ^The verb “to be,” in its various forms, is customarily omitted in Hebrew sentences, and has to be supplied. The English reader may read the sentence without the verb to see that it makes sense that the verb goes were it is placed.

9:25ᵝ ^שְׁבָעִים shɘv̱a‘i̱m. See 9:24¹. The “seven sevens” (שְׁבָעִים שִׁבעָה) I have vowel pointed with a more obvious plural of seven so that it will not be confused with periods of seven or weeks, or the number seventy (שִׁבְעִים, shiv̱‘i̱m). The MT was pointed: שָׁבֻעִים shiv̱ū‘i̱m around AD 900. There, are, of course, those who will say that the plural of the number seven is not possible because an example from an accepted usage source is not attested. But this is not how language works. Any construction that makes sense in a context is possible, and for this reason language has far more valid uses in theory than it has in actual use. The fulfillment of the prophecy makes perfect sense in terms of of a Sabbatical year being called a “seven.” (cf. Deut. 15:9, שׁנַת־הַשֶּׁבַע). If we pluralize the phrase we get: שְׁנֵי הַשְּׁבָעִים shɘnē ha shɘv̱a‘i̱m = the years of the sevens, or the seventh years.

The seven sevens refer to seven sabbatical years that came between the building of the walls during Nɘḥemyah’s administration and E̒zra̕’s administration 49 years later. The Scroll of Biblical Chronology precisely maps out all these sabbatical years. You can support this work by getting a copy.

The sixty two sevens refer to 62 sabbatical years that came after E̒zra̕’s administration (397-396 BC), and they cover the remaining years up to Mĕssiah’s death and resurrection in AD 34. These also are mapped out in the Scroll Charts.

9:25ᵞ ^The MT accenting places the major disjunctive accent after “seven sevens” so as to break it apart from the sixty two sevens, and force two halves the the timing into two different clauses, i.e: שׁבֻעִ֖ים שִׁבְעָ֑ה. The a̕tnaḥ (אַתְנָ֑ח) is placed at the end of the phrase. It forces one to consider that Prince Mĕssiah would come only after seven sevens. In as much as Prince Mĕssiah is the one and only promised Mĕssiah, the accenting is wrong, and not only wrong by malicious, because it surely was put in as a deliberate attempt to reinterpret the passage away from Yĕshūa̒. However, this does not mean the breakdown of the whole period into seven sevens and sixty two sevens has no significance. Though not the proper referent of Prince Mĕssiah, there was an anointed one who came at the end of the seven sevens, and this was the priest and scribe Ezra.

9:25ᵟ ^It appears that this is a case of Qal Passive: תֻּשׁוּב tūshūv̱. There are a number of Qal Passives occuring in post exilic books, so the Qal Passive paradigm must still be considered possible since it stands parallel to a Niphal (נִבנְתָה) niv̱nɘtah, “will have been built.” The sense may still be active, in which case the city is said to metaphorically return. Most of the English translations have reduced the whole word to the word “again” and have incorporated it into a passive phrase as an adverb to the second verb, “it will be built again.” Literally, the text should be “it will (be) return(ed), and it will have been built again,” since the first verb is an imperfect, and the second a perfect.

9:25ᵠ ^The word רְחוֹב, rɘḥōv̱ though a noun, is being used as an adverb, meaning “widely, broadly, with open space.” The term חָרוּץ ḥarūts is an adj., but in this case it has been put to the verb phrase and is working as an adverb also, “diligently, sharply” (cf. BDB). The same word may appear in multiple parts of speech. Again it is how it is used in the context that counts. See Neh. 7:4, “And the city was wide of hands”; also the wall was completed in 52 days (Neh. 6:15)! So the work was quite diligent.

9:25ᵡ ^To see the distress, one needs only read the book of Ezra and Nehemiah. At one point, before Nɘḥemyah’s administration, the city was almost complete, but the work was stopped and the walls broken down. E̒zra̕ covers the history before Nɘḥemyah rebuilt the walls, and then his own history from Ezra 7 onward covers one year during his own administration 49 years after the walls were built.

9:26† ^There are first seven sevens, then sixty two more. This makes 69. One seven is for the future. The 69th seven was AD 32/33, and Mĕssiah was cut off in AD 34. See the Scroll Book.

9:26¹ ^The meaning of וְאֵין לוֹ, wɘ ē̕yn lō is not entirely clear. It may be “and not for himself,” or “and none is for him,” or “and nothing is for him.” All ideas are acceptable. Mĕssiah was deserted by his disciples when he died, and also he did not receive his kingdom them, and also he did not die for himself. He was not cut off for his own sin, because he was the sinless Almĭghty Sŏn.

9:26² ^The city and the Temple were destroyed in AD 70 by the Romans. The commander was the Roman General Titus, who served under his father Vespasian. Vespasian became emperor, but Titus destroyed the city and the Temple in Judea. Only according to Josephus, it was the army that did it, and Titus did not wish the building destroyed. Furthermore, Titus remained a general for some years, and then served as emperor after his father, from AD 79-81. So the text says correctly the “people of a coming prince,” since Titus became the ruler of the Roman empire some time after the city and temple were destroyed.

9:26³ ^The pronoun refers to the Temple, since it is masculine in Hebrew. The city is feminine in Hebrew.

9:26ᵅ ^The word overflow, or flood (שֶׁטֶף, shetef) is an idiom that pictures the flowing mass of an army advancing over the walls of temple (and city), or bursting through a breach in the wall.

9:26ᵝ ^I have taken the participle שֹׁמֵמוֹת shōmēmōt as an adjective modifying war. The desolating war is prophetically determined.

9:27† ^The pronoun picks up on the words “the coming prince” נָגִיד הַבָּא nagi̱d haba̕, and extends its sense to the end of the age. The prince is no longer Titus here, but the man of sin, also known as Antichrist, or Antimessiah. He will be the king of revived Babylon, and will be master of the whole earth for 42 months. He will lead the final rebellion of mankind against the Most High in the seventieth seven. Yĕshūa̒ is also the coming Prince, and so it is shown by parallelism that the antimessiah attempts to take the place of Mĕssiah.

9:27¹ ^In this case the Hebrew has the word for a period of seven: שָׁבוּעַ, shav̱ūa̒. The waw וּ is written full. This is the last period of seven years, which leads up to the seventieth seven, and this is the sabbatical year. The prophecy next details events about 3 years before the end of the seventy sevens.

9:27ᵅ ^It does not say he made the covenant, but he made one that already existed stronger. For the many (לָרַבִּים, larabi̱m) is used in Dan. 11:33 and Isa. 53:11, and pertains to Yɘhūdah and Yisra̕ēl. It may be then that this world ruler wishes to bring Yisra̕ēl into his world order, without at first presenting himself as a dictator, and by dangling the carrot of improving Yisra̕ēl’s international standing, and by removing the most visible enemies of Gŏd’s covenant with Yisra’ēl from the political scene. It may be that some rulers have done this very thing before without malice, but this time Yisra’ēl will lulled into a sense of security and will be betrayed.

9:27ᵝ ^This would be in the spring of the 4th year of the last seven year period. The years for the sabbatical periods start in the fall with the new moon of the seventh month.

9:27ᵞ ^A wing of the Temple, as in the idiom “a wing of a building.”

10:13¹ ^ לְנֶגְדִּי lɘnegdi̱ = at before me.

10:13† ^And behold he Who-is-like-Gŏd, first °over the headmost princes, had come to help me. This text is often offered as the sole reason as to why מִיכָאֵל Mi̱ḳa’ēl cannot be the same person as Mĕssiah. The translation “one of the chief princes,” however in English implies that he is just one of the guys, so to speak. It need not sound that way in Hebrew. The word אַחַד is very often used in the sense of “first,” and here could mean that he ranks above the others, i.e. “first of the headmost princes.” I have marked the construct here as “°over” to explain it. Paul calls him “the archangel” ἀρχαγγέλου in 1Thess. 4:16, which means “chief Messenger,” and identifies his voice with the voice of Mĕssiah. It seems pretty clear then that Mi̱ḳa’ēl is just another name (or title) for Mĕssiah. And he appears to fit that role just where he appears. The Messenger of Yăhwēh is the Almĭghty Son, and is identified as Yăhwēh in many passages. Mi̱ḳa’ēl is called the prince of Yisra’ēl in Dan. 10:21, and the “great prince” in Dan. 12:1.