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TorahTimes Messianic Ministry

Teaching Truths about Torah, Time, and Messiah

Messiah’s First Coming Calculated

by the Prediction of Daniel the Prophet

More than 500 years before the coming of Christ, the Prophet Daniel was given a message from the Almĭghty foretelling when the Messiah would die and rise again. The chapter that predicts the timing of His coming is in Daniel Chapter 9. The text gives the starting point for calculation, and measures of time split into three parts, measuring the time to two coming princes, and the time duration for a final wicked prince before the Kingdom of God is set up.

Start Point:    Rebuilding Jerusalem  Governor Nehemiah                   445 BC
First Measure:  Seven Sevens          The Anointed-Priest Governor Ezra   397 BC
Second Measure: Sixty Two Sevens      The Anointed-Prince Messiah Yeshua   34 AD
Third Measure:  One Seven            The Wicked Prince   Antichrist     2028 AD+49*n

Exactly 69 Sabbatical Years (7th years) fit between the decree to rebuild and the death of Messiah.E1

Each time period builds on the next so that a total of Seventy Sevens is reached.E3 At the end of Seventy Sevens “everlasting righteousness comes,” Daniel is told, “for your holy city” and “for your people.” This everlasting righteousness has not come yet, because the Jewish People and Jerusalem are still in the grip of sin, and indeed the whole world is in the grip of sin, and if once everlasting righteousness came to Israel, then all the nations of the earth would be blessed.E4

There are many controversies concerning this prophecy. But this is not because the Almĭghty was unclear with his word, or because the prophet Daniel explained Yăhwɛh’s words badly. This is because the prophecy is the only one predicting just when Messiah would come, and the enemy of Messiah did not want people to understand when then, and he still does not want people to understand when now. The enemy of Messiah seeks to sow confusion about the timing and meaning of Messiah’s death and resurrection. That is why there are so many opinions, few of which agree with each other, and most of which point us away from any truth, which are circulating among those who want to be faithful.

First, let us take a look at the text. I am giving a fresh English translation straight from the Hebrew:

The Text:

24 Seventy sevens¹ have been cut out for your people, and for your holy city, to make to be finished the ²transgression, to seal up ³sin, and to make be wiped awayᵅ iniquity, and to make come everlasting ᵝrighteousness, and to make sealedᵞ the ᵟvision, and the ᵨProphet, and to anoint the holy of holies.ᵡ ‡

25 And you should¹ know and you should understand and you should pay attention², from the going out of word to restore and to build Yerūshalaim until Prince ³Mĕssiah, areᵅ seven ᵝsevensᵞ and sixty and two sevens. It will beᵟ restored, and it will have been built broadlyᵠ and diligently, and in the distressᵡ of the times.

26 And after the sixty and two sevens† Mĕssiah will be cut off, and none is for him.¹ And the city and the holy place, the people of a coming prince, will make ruined.² And its³ end is in the ᵅoverflow, and until the end desolatingᵝ war is determined.

27 And he† will have madeᵅ strong a covenant for the many, for one period of seven.¹ And at halfᵝ of the period of seven, he will make cease sacrifice and tribute offering. And he will place upon a wingᵞ abominations making to be desolate, and until an annihilation, even being decided, will pour out upon the desolater.

The Starting points

The prophecy starts when a word is sent out to restore and to build Jerusalem. In Hebrew the word is: דָבָר, daνar. Teachers have taught several starting points for the prophecy. The starting point is in plain sight in Scripture. The reason there are several starting points is that most teachers believe in corrupt ending points based on corrupt theology and their corrupt traditions due to the fact that they were successfully deceived by the enemy of Messiah in various degrees. Since their traditions and presuppositions do not agree with the obvious starting point, they come to believe that the obvious point is just a feint and that the Almĭghty has hidden the truth more cryptically. They then fall into the traps of strategic lies placed by the enemy to eliminate the obvious starting point from consideration. This is not all the fault of the enemy, but also of the fact that people, even many among the faithful, who simply do no want to believe what God said, and also simply do not want to test claims of what God said to see if the claims are true. They therefore seek for any other starting point that by the most tenuous association can be called a starting point. Thankfully, there are still many faithful who want to know the truth, and who are willing to seek it, and test it, but who just need some direction in order to put those qualities to work. And this is because we are willing to follow the Spĭrit where He leads.

Here are the most common starting points considered. Among them is the correct starting point, which I will explain last.

I.   When the first Temple was Destroyed 
II.  When Cyrus announced the Temple should be rebuilt
III. When Artaxerxes gave commandment to rebuild Jerusalem
IV.  When Artaxerxes gave Ezra a decree for the Temple

Each is Explained:

The first option is that given by Jewish commentators based on the theory of Rabbi Ӈalaphta in the Jewish work called Seder Olam. Seder Olam is a Jewish chronology of the world from Adam to the destruction of the second Temple, dating from about AD 150. Ӈalaphta was a student of Rabbi Akkıνa who was put to death by the Romans because he said that Simon Bar Kochba was the Messiah and because he supported the second Jewish Revolt against Rome. Ӈalaphta implicitly put the destruction of the Second Temple in AD 69 when he claimed it happened in the “going out of the seventh year” (מוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִעִית), motsa’ɛı sheν‘ıt. According to Ӈalaphta the first and second temple were destroyed in year one of the Sabbatical cycle, and that counting year one for the destruction of the first Temple, then the destruction of the second Temple was in year 491. Many Jews still believe this theory to this very day.E9

The first Temple was destroyed in 587 BC and the second in AD 70, and this is 657 years.E10 Ӈalaphta’s calculation is 166 years too short: (657 - 491 = 166). In the Seder Olam work most of the Persian period is eliminated from history to accomplish the shortening of time. The theory is easy to critique. Firstly, the destruction of the city and temple by the king of Babylon is the polar opposite of a decree or word to rebuild the city. So it is not a valid starting point. Second, it would be true than an anointed prince was cut off in the destruction of the Second Temple, namely the high priest, but the Rabbi has put this at the end of 490 years. The prophecy puts the cutting off of the Messianic Prince after the seven sevens and sixty two sevens, or a sum of 69 sevens, and then it puts the destruction of the city and temple into the time line, and then it speaks again of the Temple service being cut off in the middle of the final seven. On top of these objections we may add that the 491st year should have brought everlasting righteousness with it as promised in vs. 24. The following frauds are required or taught by this theory:

1. An invalid starting point
2. An invalid sabbatical synchronization at the starting point
3. An invalid ending point for the anointed Prince to be cut off
4. An invalid duration of the time between the start and end points
5. An invalid end point in light of the promises of vs. 24

Not only is the Rabbi’s theory a pious fraud, but the Rabbinic calendar cycles are built on the chronological theory of Seder Olam. The Rabbinic calendar cycle works on 19 year cycles, which when divided into the year of the creation, as determined by Seder Olam tell us which year of the 19 year cycle the Jewish Calendar is in.E11 The Rabbinic calendar year, and the intercalation of the II Adar by the calendar are mathematically linked to the Seder Olam theory. The Rabbinic Calendar is not something the faithful in Messiah Yeshua should depend on either, since the 19 year cycle for the moon that it uses is about 2 hours longer than 19 solar years, and it has been slowly drifting forward in the year with respect to the seasons. The total drift in the last 1000 years is 52 cycles (1000/19) or 104 hours (52 * 2), which is 4 days. And this periodically causes the Rabbinic calendar to run a month late as in 2016.

The Second Theory

The second theory was promoted by Christian Chronologists Martin Anstey (1913) and David Cooper (ca. 1939). It was predicated on the Isaiah 44:28 prophecy that Cyrus should give the order to rebuild the Temple. Now this theory has been abandoned because it also was based on a shortening of the Persian period. Anstey and Cooper thought the received Greek Chronology was too long, and that Cyrus should be identified with Cyrus the Great. This theory went by the wayside when it became clear that astronomical dating of archaeological documents from the Neo Babylonian Empire confirmed the received chronology. This theory was unnecessary, however, since Isaiah 45:4 clearly says that Cyrus is a surname, which in the case of a king means a throne name. There were many Persian kings which retained the title Cyrus, even if it was little used in addition to their other titles. Cyrus could be any Persian king descended from Cyrus the Great. In fact Artaxerxes I is the son of Xerxes son of Darius and Atossa (princess of Anshan), daughter of Cyrus II the Great. And Artaxerxes II is also descended from Cyrus the Great.

The Rabbinic Theory described above also assumes this theory, that Cyrus the Great was supposed to give the decree to rebuild the Temple and the City. We should note however that Isaiah not only says Cyrus is a surname, but he makes Cyrus into a type of Messiah ascribing divine attributes to Cyrus that can only be ascribed to Messiah. This shows that surnames may be inherited by adoption or conquest. A case of this is when Cyrus invaded Egypt, he added the dynastic throne-name Pharaoh to his many titles. In a similar manner the title Caesar was treated which was ultimately adopted by the Russian Monarchy, Tsar and Tsarina. In American politics we may speak of the president’s cabinet men as Czar.

Josephus scrambled chronology of the Persian period is interesting in the way he uses the term Cyrus:

KING                 JOSEPHUS       contemporary  High Priest
Xerxes               Ant. 11:120
                     Ant. 11:121    ~Ezra         ~Joiakim    
                     Ant. 11:158                  ~Eliashib      
Xerxes                              ~Nehemiah     ~Eliashib                        
Cyrus/Artaxerxes     Ant. 11:184.   ~Esther
                     Ant. 11:297                  ~Judas  (Joiada)
                     Ant. 11:297                  ~John   (Johanan)
Philip               Ant. 11:304
Alexander            Ant. 11:305

The Fourth Theory

I will discuss the 4th theory first, since like the first two, it is incorrect. This theory assumes that the decree in Ezra chapter 7 by Artaxerxes is meant. This theory suffers from the following list of problems:

1.  Ezra’s govenorship was contemporary with a high priest
    after the time of Nehemiah.
2.  The assumed date of 458 or 457 BC for the 7th year of
    Artaxerxes I was during the time of an Egyptian revolt
    in which the Persian fleet was destroyed and Sparta had
    entered the war against Persia. It was no time for a gold
    laden caravan to set out to Judea unguarded. The king
    would have insisted on one lest the gold fall to the Greeks.
3.  The decree did not concern the rebuilding of Jerusalem.
4.  The calculation runs past the city destruction.
5.  The assumed calculation supposed an anti-Levicial theology.
6.  The scheduled departure date Nisan 1, 458 BC was a Sabbath.

This theory is very popular among Churches which deny any future validity to the Levitical priesthood, and this despite the fact that many of Israel’s prophets make it very clear that the Temple will be restored in the Age to Come. This theory is also popular because it allows teachers with this bias to pin down dates ranging from AD 29 to AD 31.

The theory claims that Daniel 9:27, where it says the sacrifice and offering will cease in the middle of the seven years, is synchronized with Messiah’s death. The problem with this supposition is that Messiah is said to be cut off after the 62 sevens, before the city and temple are destroyed, and before the last seven year period even starts. Another problem is that the Temple Service did not end then, so proponents of this theory are forced to explain that the sacrifices ceased in the sense that they became theologically invalid.

           Order of Prophecy:               Order of this Theory
                                            ---decree before rebuilding decree--  458 BC
					 City rebuilt                     ?                                          
           Seven Sevens                     ?
           Sixty Two Sevens                 ?
           Prince Messiah cut off           ?
           City and Temple Destroyed        ?
           A Covenant is Confirmed          New Covenant
           In the Middle of a Seven         ----Messiah is cut off--------        30-33 AD 
             Sacrifices Ended
           The Temple is Defiled            ?

This theory is built on the misinterpretation of a fair number of passages which attempt to force Ezra into the time line before Nehemiah. Admittedly, these misinterpretations are a traditional legacy handed down by Judaism and Christianity, but these traditions will not hold up to the facts. Ezra indeed did read the Torah when Nehemiah was governor, and then he went back to Persia (like Nehemiah did also), where he was appointed himself governor 49 years later. The seven sevens of years are explained by noting that Ezra came 49 years after Nehemiah to restore the Temple after a non-Jewish Persian governor had misgoverned it in the intervening years.

The 7th year of Artaxerxes I was Nisan 458 BC. Ezra says that he scheduled (יְסֻ֔ד) the journey for Nisan 1. Now in 458 BC Nisan 1 was a Sabbath. The astronomy forbids any other day. On the other hand, in 397 BC Nisan 1 fell on Sunday, April 23 in the local Babylonian Calendar. Now we do not expect anyone in those days to schedule a journey according to the new moon day, which was considered unpredictable.1 The wise thing to do was to say that the journey would begin on the first day of the week so many weeks hence. In that case, the new moon day happened to agree with the departure date, and Ezra duly filled it in. The Sabbath would allow those who had traveled long to the rendezvous to rest up one day before continuing the journey on the scheduled departure date.

The Selling Point of the Fourth Theory

The selling point of making 458 BC the starting point, and the years 29-31 a midpoint of the last seven years is that 490 years runs all in one stretch. They assume that 490 years run all in one stretch, and then they present this symmetry as the reason their theory is correct over what is called the “gap theory.” This is circular reasoning, and it ignores the order of the text, and the fact that events of this theory do not correspond with the order of the text. One might suppose that the city and temple were supposed to be destroyed sometime before AD 26 or 27, when the last seven years they suppose began. They are willing to overlook this major flaw in their steadfast belief in the erring Friday crucifixion scheme, and the fact that this theory was historically the first one to come along to give them a solace for their propensities. It is critically important to understand the reasons different groups cling to theories that are obviously seriously flawed when put to a basis analysis. It explains why the flaws are overlooked. It explains why the flaws are carefully hidden and swept aside in their presentations.

We should not be amazed that there is a gap between the 62 sevens and the 1 seven at the end of the prophecy. First, the city and Temple destruction in AD 70 falls into the order of the prophesy between the cutting off of Messiah and the last seven. This requires a gap of at least the number of Sabbatical years required to fill the years from AD 34 to AD 70. Also, everlasting righteousness was promised at the end of the time period of seventy sevens. If there is to be everlasting righteousness, then there has to be judgment before it is ushered in. And the last part of the prophecy mentions the implied judgment, “and until an annihilation, even being decided, will pour out upon the desolater.” It is a plain fact that no desolater of the Temple in AD 70 faced judgment shortly thereafter, nor was everlasting righteousness brought in for Israel.

The reason for the Seventy Sevens in the first place allows for the gap. The gap is really a delay in the final end, and the final judgment. It is a space of time for any and all among the nations to hear and respond to the word of the Almĭghty. The gap is a gracious chance for them to turn to the truth before God has to judge the world. Now the seventy sevens are based on the seventy years that Judah was sent into exile, and those seventy years are in turn based on seventy sabbatical years that Israel and Judah did not keep. It is plainly obvious that Israel and Judah did not sin all in one stretch and fail to keep seventy sabbatical years all in one stretch. But Israel’s relationship with her Almĭghty was on and off again. And this is the teaching of the book of Judges. When Israel kept Yăhwɛh’s laws, then Israel was blessed, and then the Sabbath years were not counted toward judgment. So the Sabbath years counted for judgment are separated time segments. Daniel expected the kingdom of God to come, but the Messenger of Yahweh reminds him that judgment will be sevenfold, or seventy times seven. That is the meaning of the prophecy. In his divine wisdom, the Almĭghty gave the prophecy in three stretches of time: seven sevens, sixty two sevens, and one seven. The reason for the first division, between the seven sevens, and the sixty two, is that there was a first anointed one who came at the end of the seven sevens. This was Ezra the Priest. All priests are anointed. Ezra was also appointed to be the governor of Judea by Artaxerxes II. This made him a leader, a nagıd (נָגִיד), which may also be translated “prince.” But it is important to recognize that the Hebrew word may mean any kind of leader or ruler. The reason for the first division was not for a gap, but because someone important, appointed by the Almĭghty, came after Nehemiah to be governor. Ezra did read the Torah when Nehemiah was governor, but like Nehemiah he went back to the exiles. And then in the 49th year after that (7x7) and after seven sevens, seven sabbatical years, he returned and entered the office of Persian governor over Judea. The reason for the final division, between the 62 sevens and the 1 seven is for a gap. As Israel delayed its disobedience and did not commit its sin all in one stretch, so also the Almĭghty will delay the one seven so that Israel may repent in the space between the 62 sevens and the 1 seven. The message of Messiah was made clear when he died and rose from the dead. The gap is a long opportunity to repent.

The Third Theory

In Nehemiah 2:1, the date is clearly stated as Nisan in the 20th year of Artaxerxes. The only way the prophecy can work is if this is Artaxerxes I. Now Xerxes had died in 465 BC before Tishri 1, and so the Judeans calculated his first year from Tishri 1, 465 BC. Accordingly the 20th year was between Tishri 1, 446 BC and Tishri 1, 445 BC. Also we may note that according to the Persian calendar itself, Nisan in the 20th year, calculated from the spring regnal epoch, began on Nisan 1, 445 BC. The decree clearly pertains to rebuilding the city of Jerusalem, because Nehemiah had said, “And let me build it” (וְאֶבְנֶֽנָּה, we’eνnennah). This agrees with the exact verb used in the prophecy: לִבְנוֹת lıνnot, which is “to build” Jerusalem. Hebrew words are built on verb roots with unified meaning. To the uneducated in Hebrew, the different forms of the same root can look very different. But the differences are really only of syntax, person, number, and the inflexion of the verb. The fundamental meaning sense is the same.

Now that we have identified the correct decree, we will see that it suffers from no fatal errors, and that it ends up in the right place.

The Unit of Measurement

The unit of measurements are stated as so many שִׁבְעִים, shıν‘ım. This is simply the plural of seven in Hebrew. So “Seventy sevens....sixty and two sevens....” is a correct way to translate the word. Compare NIV, NIVUK. The word does not mean a seven day week. For in that case on must put שָׁבוּעַ, shaνua. But the alteration in the text to a masculine plural of seven indicates something other than a seven day week. In Hebrew the plural of seven day weeks appears as שָׁבוּעוֹת or spelled שָׁבֻעֹת, shaνuot. The key to the time period is to identify what the singular term means: שֶׁבַע, sheνa. This is stated in Deuteronomy 15:9: שׁנַֽת־הַשֶּׁבַע֮ שְׁנַ֣ת הַשְּׁמִטָּה. This translates, “year of the seven, year of the Shemittah (release).” So the term seven is associated with the year of release. The prophecy is to be calculated by counting up Sabbatical years, or seventh years, called shıν‘ım in Hebrew. It should be noted that a number of Hebrew numbers like, fiftieth and fifty, or forty and fortieth, take the same form in Hebrew. Compare for instance Lev. 25:10 and Gen. 7:24. The same must be true for seven and seventh. The year of the seven means the same as the seventh year. So speaking of sevens means sevenths.

It would be seen at once that considering each seven as a full seven years does not work. For then 7 x 7 + 62 x 7 = 483. And 483 - 445 BC = 38 AD. It is clearly obvious that AD 34 is the last possible year for the crucifixion. So the calculation must be done in terms of counting the stated number of seventh years and not a stated number of seven year periods.

It should also be noted that since the sabbatical years are required for counting them, that the actual historic sabbatical year timing is required to do it. Most teachers simply randomly choose seven year periods with no consideration for when the seventh year actually is or was. Furthermore, most prophecy teachers suggesting this, and that a seven year period coming up in the next few years will be “Daniel’s Seventieth Week” fail to reckon with the fact that their seven year period is assumed, and is never proved to be the actual seven year cycle. These things are not considered because the human mind has a horrible tendency to simply believe its own suggestions without proof, and an equally prideful tendency to continue in the suggestions without putting them to the test. The same thing goes for audiences who listen to the suggestions of others. Error is founded on the arrogance of our own nature. Now, for all the criticism I have sent the way of Rabbi Ӈalaptha, and his Seder Olam work, the fact is that he and his contemporaries correctly did recognize that Daniel 9 was to be computed in terms of Sabbatical years, and not only that, but their incorrect calculation was really done in terms of the correct sabbatical cycle. Also, I am not the first modern teacher to teach this. I was pointed in the right direction by Robert C. Newman, who made the case for counting actual seventh years.5 It is plainly obvious that our earliest Jewish sources have preserved something of the truth.

Debunking Anderson’s Unit of Measure

First, why should I debunk the 360 day/year method of calculating this prophecy? The calculation is that 7 sevens + 62 sevens = 483 years (7 x 7 + 62 x 7 = 483). And these years are assumed to be 360 days each. So the number of days supposed to be between the decree and the crucifixion are figured to be 173,880 days (483 x 360 = 173,880). The reason for addressing this is that this theory ranks #1 among Evangelical Dispensationalists, and even if you the reader have never heard of the theory, it is only because you are unaware of the chronological substructure that is assumed under a major denominational system. Subscribers to this theory are: Mark Hitchcock, Thomas Ice, John Walvoord, Josh McDowell, Harold Hoehner, Walter C. Kaiser, John Ankerberg, and many other famous names.

Sir Robert Anderson proposed that the calculation should be done in terms of a 360 day year, in which he assumed that the flood year was 360 days because he thought that 5 months into 150 days meant that every month had 30 days, and thus 12 x 30 was 360 days. He then assumed that this was a prophetic year used in Daniel 9. His calculation was 445 BC to AD 32. There was just one problem. Astronomical calculation proves that AD 32 is impossible for a Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday crucifixion. So the most scholarly Evangelical Fundamentalists quietly changed Anderson’s dates to 444 BC to AD 33. However, belief in 445 BC to AD 32 (and even 445 BC to AD 30!) still remains despite unsurmountable astronomical problems.

The 444 BC date is invalid. First the 20th year was in 445 BC, just as Anderson had it. Second, the Tishri version of this year for Judea was Tishri 1 446 to Tishri 1 445, and this is due to the fact that archeology has since proved 445 correct. Xerxes died before Tishri 1, 465, and no reign was ever reckoned to Artabanus, the general who conspired to kill Xerxes and the crown prince Darius. Artaxerxes was still alive and under all circumstances would be regarded as the new king. So nothing could be reckoned to Artabanus. Scribes often dated the year of an old king, though dead, in the accession year of a new king.2 Finally, the resulting calculation is invalid since it is too long to fit between Nisan 1, 444 BC and Nisan 15, AD 33:

Month                                                                  base date
Nisan 1, 444 BC   julian date: 1559344.19 to 1559345.19 (sunset basis) FRI April 3
Nisan 1,  33 AD   julian date: 1733190.18 to 1733191.18 (sunset basis) SAT March 21
                                   +13           +13
Nisan 14, 33 AD                1733203.18 to 1733204.18 (sunset basis) FRI April 3
Diferences                      173859        173859

7 x 7 + 62 x 7 = 49 +  434 = 483
483 x 360 = 173880

173,880 > 173,859 by 21 days.                    

So the revised dates of 444 BC to AD 33 are 21 days too short for the stated parameters, i.e. there are not 483 years of 360 days between Nisan 1, 444 BC and Nisan 14, AD 33. Now they do not disclose that when giving a date for *Nisan 1, 444 at March 4 or 53 in order to make the calculation work, that said date is in fact the 1st day of Adar, which is 21 days before the spring equinox. The Persians at this period had a very regular calendar. Nisan was always calculated after the spring equinox. Furthermore, if this month had been Nisan in a Hebrew calendar, the first day of Passover would have been an unacceptable 7 days before the spring equinox. To make matters worse, it was not possible in this year to add a II ADAR in the Persian calendar. For that Adar was the 1st Adar. Now going back to 445 BC, the first month of the year began on April 13, which was 20 days after the spring equinox. So in order for the Persians to accommodate the AD 33 theory, they would have to put Nisan 1 before the spring equinox two years in a row. As it is impossible for them to miscalculate the spring equinox this far, the whole theory must be judged impossible.

As a final remark on this theory, the assumptions based on Noah’s flood year are invalid. In the cycles of the real moon, there may be four thirty day months and one twenty-nine day month in a space of five months. The sum is 149 days (4 x 30 + 29 = 149). This counts from the 17th day of the 2nd month to the 16th day of the 7th month. Counting inclusively, we include the 17th day of the 7th month in the counting and arrive at a total of 150 days. This disproves that a schematic month of 30 days is being constantly used. Furthermore, working out the month lengths for the flood year in 2483 BC shows exactly four thirty day months and one twenty-nine day month in the period, and the related events fall into the correct weekdays.4

The Genuine Calculation

The correct unit of time for a “seven” is the the actual Sabbatical year. This is a fact proved in Scripture by Deuteronomy 15:9 where the year of release is called “year of the seven.” Furthermore, the other theories do not care about when the actual seven year periods occur. Nor can they work their theories without redefining a year and engaging in all kinds of mathematical tricks to make their theories work. None of the other theories explain the seven sevens. Our calculation does.

The year 445/444 was Sabbatical. This notation means Tishri 1 445 through Tishri 1 444. So the first Seven Sabbatical years are:

                (Nehemiah builds the walls in 52 days before Tishri 1, 445.)
1.    445/444
                 Ezra reads the Law in Tishri showing the year is Sabbatical.
2.    438/437
3.    431/430
4.    424/423
5.    417/416
6.    410/409
7.    403/402
                (397 to 396: Ezra reforms the people in the 49th year, after seven sevens.)

And the next 62 are:

1.    396/395     8.    347/346    15.    298/297    22.    249/248    29.    200/199
2.    389/388     9.    340/339    16.    291/290    23.    242/241    30.    193/192
3.    382/381    10.    333/332    17.    284/283    24.    235/234    31.    186/185
4.    375/374    11.    326/325    18.    277/276    25.    228/227    32.    179/178
5.    368/367    12.    319/318    19.    270/269    26.    221/220    33.    172/171
6.    361/360    13.    312/311    20.    263/262    27.    214/213    34.    165/164
7.    354/353    14.    305/304    21.    256/255    28.    207/206    35.    158/157

36.    151/150    43.    102/101  50.    53/52    57.    4/3 BC
37.    144/143    44.    95/94    51.    46/45    58.    4/5 AD
38.    137/136    45.    88/87    52.    39/38    59.    11/12
39.    130/129    46.    81/80    53.    32/31    60.    18/19
40.    123/122    47.    74/73    54.    25/24    61.    25/26
41.    116/115    48.    67/66    55.    18/17    62.    32/33
42.    109/108    49.    60/59    56.    11/10       AD 34: Messiah dies and Rises Again! 			

The prophecy says “And after the sixty and two sevens† Mĕssiah will be cut off.” The 62nd sabbatical year occurred in 32/33 AD, that is Tishri 1, AD 32 to Tishri 1 AD 33. This points to the year AD 34 as the year of the crucifixion. And indeed it was, because we have already worked it out that the crucifixion was on Wednesday, March 24th, AD 34. The crucifixion is מוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִעִית, that is “going out of the seventh year,” just as claimed by Seder Olam for the destruction of the Temple in AD 69. Now we should note that based on the Jewish numbers, Heinrich W. Guggenheimer, in his edition, of Seder Olam boldly claims that the second Temple was destroyed in AD 69, and that the Roman numbers are wrong. This implies that AD 67/68 was Sabbatic. And as we see this is the same cycle I have used for Daniel 9: 67-32/68-33 = 35/35 = 5x7/5x7.

Now the truth of the matter on the destruction of the second Temple is that it was destroyed in the second year of the sabbatical cycle, in AD 70. And this is the date for which the 9th of Aν works out to be on the first day of the week as Seder Olam states. It does not work for AD 69 at all. But the fact remains that the claimed year for the destruction, and the claimed year of the Sabbatical cycle are in exact agreement with that we have used in Daniel 9.

Consulting Bennedict Zuckermann’s Treatise of the Sabbatical Cycle we find that he admits to two possible cycles, and those are the one we have here, and the year after it. Which one is it? Plainly it is the other choice Zuckermann allowed for but did not prefer. What gets published is the cycle he preferred. The other one he allowed for is mentioned in his book and hardly anyone knows about it because they did not read his book.

The Sabbatical Cycles

The proof of when the Sabbatical cycles are supposed to fall I have established on the basis of biblical chronology rather than Zuckermann or Seder Olam. I am saying, however, that both sources agree with the results I obtain. This paper is not the place to go into a comprehensive discussion, as it quickly becomes a subject of general biblical chronology. The following summary shall suffice to show the key points:

AD 32/33    Year before crucifixion, Dan. 9:25
BC 445/444  Ezra read the Torah in Tishri as prescribed by Law, Deut. 31:10.
BC 528/527  מוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִעִית (motsa’ɛı shıν‘ıt): the Temple altar set up, Ezra 3:1.
BC 570/569  מוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִעִית: Nebuchadnezzar’s madness begins.
BC 598/597  מוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִעִית: the first year of exile, Jer. 29:10.
BC 599/598  The 70th land Sabbath Israel and Judah did not keep.
BC 612/611  Nineveh falls in the year of Jubilee.
BC 710/709  Jubilee in Hezekiah’s 16th year.
BC 921/920  Third year of Jehoshaphat, 2 Chron. 17:7.
BC 1053/52  Ark brought to Jerusalem in Jubilee, 2 Sam. 6:15.
BC 1102/01  Saul blows the Jubilee Trumpet, 1 Sam. 13:1-3.


Daniel 9 predicts that from the decree to rebuild Jerusalem, which was given in 445 BC, until the coming of an Anointed Prince would be seven Sabbatical years, and sixty two Sabbatical years, and that another person would desolate the Temple in the final 70th Sabbatical period. After the first seven sabbatical years, and also 49 years exactly, came the anointed priest Ezra in 397 to 396 BC. After the 62 sabbatical years came Messiah Yeshua and died in AD 34. This was just after the Sabbatical year of AD 32/33, or in the first year of the next cycle. The remaining time is cut off until the end of the age, and when the clock starts ticking again for the 70th sabbatical period it will run out at the end of a sabbatical year which will bring in everlasting righteousness for Israel and Jerusalem.

The reason that most professed Christians are unwilling to embrace this simple solution resides in the simple fact that it disagrees with what their teachers have taught about Yăhwɛh’s Law. It disagrees with their rejection of the Temple and Levitical Services. It disagrees with their Friday Crucifixion and Sunday Resurrection scheme. It disagrees with false doctrines their denominations have cemented into their tradition or written into their doctrinal statements. The fact is that most professed Christians will not be going to heaven when Messiah returns, but he will say to them that he never knew them as it says in Matthew 7:22-23, and this will be because they want to hear they are saved, but they do not want to humble themselves enough to listen to his words and distinguish between the true and false side of every controversy.

Do Christians have to solve every mystery and controversy? No. But, God requires faithfulness. Be faithful in a little, and more will be given. Be faithless and even what you think you have will be stolen away. He who has will be given more. He who will not hold fast the truth, even what he has will be taken away. There are many traps as iniquity increases, and the people called by God’s name are destroyed for lack of knowledge because they have hearts of stone and will not seek out the truth.

445 BC    Nisan nd  Decree Issued by Artaxerxes II
          Elul  25  Walls completed by Nehemiah, Tue Sept 2.
          Tishri 1  Sabbatical Year begins, Torah read by Ezra
397 BC    Nisan  1  Ezra Fixes this date to leave Babylon, Sun April 23
          Nisan 12  Actual leaving date, Thur May 4.
403 BC    Tishri 1  Seventh Sabbatical year begins
396 BC    Nisan  1  Ezra’s reforms completed in 49th year (445-396=49)
396 BC    Tishri 1  Eighth Sabbatical year begins
                    First of 62 Sabbatical years
AD 32     Tishri 1  Sixty-Second Sabbatical year begins
AD 33     Tishri 1  Sixty-Second Sabbatical year end
                    Total 69 Sabbatical Years complete
AD 34     Nisan 14  Messiah is crucified on Wednesday, March 24.
          Nisan 17  Messiah is raised before dawn on the Sabbath, March 27th.
AD 2028 + 49 x n6    The man of lawlessness.

Questions and Answers

1. How do we know that 445 BC was the 20th year of Artaxerxes? (Nehemiah 2:1).

Answer: A tablet found by archaeologists cataloged as “VAT 5047” is dated in the 11th year of Artaxerxes. The positions of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury are given: “Night of the 25th, a few clouds; the moon was balanced 1 cubit in front of Mars” [6/15/454 BC]. “Night of the 26th, the moon was behind Venus.” [6/16/454 BC]. “The 28th, Mercury's last appearance in the east in the end of Aquarius.” (3/11/453 BC). 1 Cubit = 1.5 to 2.0 deg. Balanced = near conjunction. Now if 454 = year 11, then 454 - 9 = 11 + 9 and 445 = year 20. ”

2. Now do we know that the Jews in Judea reckoned their local 20th year between Tishri 1, 446 BC and Tishri 1 445 BC?

Answer: British Museum Tablet BM 32234 states, “Murder of Xerxes: Month V, day 14+x.” This was before Tishri 1, 465 BC. Therefore the first year by a Tishri epoch is between Tishri 1, 465 and Tishri 1, 464 BC. Dating the first year a year later between Tishri 1, 464 and 463 implies that Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem in 444 BC and that Ezra read the Torah in Tishri 444 BC. This would be the end of the Sabbatical year. But it was customary to read the Torah at the feast of Tabernacles in the Sabbatical year. See Deut. 31:10. The phrase translated there “end of the seventh year” is correctly rendered “limit” or “boundary” “of the seventh year,” and it means the near boundary, or beginning of it. This was pointed out by Ibn Ezra in relation of Jeremiah 34:14. A Hebrew slave was to serve only six years. So the release point is the beginning “endpoint” or better “boundary” of the seventh year. See also footnote 2 below.

3. How do we know the crucifixion was in AD 34?

Answer: I have written a separate article on this. To give an answer here in short form, the only year between AD 30 and 34 to place Nisan 14 on a Wednesday, which allows the resurrection to be on the Sabbath is AD 34. AD 34 was supported by Joseph Scaliger, Isaac Newton, the Bede, Solomon Zeitlin, Claudius of Turin, Reinher of Paderborn, Albert the Great, Onofrio Panvinio, Gerhard Mercator, and others. The date was abandoned only because AD 34 did not yield up a Friday date when Astronomical Science caught up with the historians. The Historic date of the Church was given as March 25th, AD 34 by the Bede. This was the date of Nisan 15, and is in fact, only one day off. The crucifixion was March 24th, AD 34. We can be sure the resurrection was on the Sabbath at dawn because the Evangelists all clearly state it was on the “first of the Sabbaths”, and this idiom points us to Leviticus 23:15 where instructions are given to count seven Sabbaths after Passover. The resurrection was on the first one of these.

4. How do we know Ezra became a governor after Nehemiah’s term?

Answer: There are a great many scholars who have argued this position, who have correctly pointed out that Ezra’s term was contemporary with the High Priest Johanan son of Eliashib. Eliashib was contemporary with Nehemiah’s term as governor. Furthermore Johanan is mentioned in the Elephantine Papyri as being High Priest after the time of Nehemiah. The order of events have simply been turned around by tradition. The incorrectness of the tradition and the correctness of the order are proved by the exact fit of the seven sevens with Ezra’s itinerary and reform efforts, after seven Sabbatic periods, and exactly 49 years. There are also a great number of improbabilities involved with postulating a mission for Ezra in 458 BC which the great mass of scholars are unaware of or which have a vested interest in status quo and fail to mention.

5. How do we know the text speaks of two anointed ones?

The text mentions the “Anointed Leader” twice, once at the end of the seven sevens, and once after the 62 sevens. The traditional Scribal Accent marks also serve as punctuation marks. There is the equivalent of a period in English at the end of the “seven sevens.” This alone would prove that there were two anointed ones being spoken about. But since these are traditional markings, it may be that a period is not to be read. I give a translation with different punctuation. So I would say the answer to this question depends on the observation that an anointed priest actually did come 49 years after the walls of the city were rebuilt. I should note, however, for those who have faith in the traditional accent marks, that the chronology given here is a powerful apologetic against the Rabbis who would urge the punctuation in the Hebrew text against the validity of application to Messiah Yeshua.

5. How did you figure this all out?

Answer: I did’nt. I was given a starting point by a good many chronologists before me. The key was not to dismiss their research, but to compare and combine their researches, and work out the contradictions between the versions by consulting the Scriptures. I had to have a prayerful attitude and had to be willing to follow the evidence as it was revealed. I had to realize that no argument could be based on naked authority or unsupported tradition, or it would simply be another opinion. All the results had to be based on hard scientific fact, or to be confirmed by witnesses or by what was probable rather than that which satisfied the prevailing religious prejudices. Another key is that only the faithful in Messiah are free to truly think for themselves if only they are willing to do so. The rest of the false religious world is under the power of the evil one, and they cannot be free to think objectively unless they submit to the good news of Messiah. This is because the evil one has the power to snatch the truth away from them according to his resources and whims. That is the curse they live under. So when dealing with the unbelieving we have to pray for them when we come into contact with them a prayer of protection that they would be allowed to think honestly. But there are cases where the despairing cry out to the Almĭghty and he grants them a season of safety in which to find Him.

6. How can Christianity have ended up so wrong about its origins?

Answer: one may as well ask: How can Judaism have ended up so wrong about the Messiah? Or how can scientists end up so wrong about the creation of the word? Or how can those who believe in an expanding universe end up so wrong about the nature of red shift? The status quo imparts a sense of emotional security and feeds the need to be liked, and the desire to avoid persecution. Everyone who has committed themselves to finding the truth no matter what has had to suffer dislike, persecution, and worse. Seeking the truth requires denial of those human frailties and fears that turn us into cowards. The struggle and fight is necessary to understand how humanity can be so evil. You have to experience it. There are many thinkers who realize that humanity regularly makes up its own beliefs and is infinitely gullible. Sadly, they often think this is all there is, and therefore they become cynics who cannot believe the truth when proper evidence for it actually does show up. So anyone who asks this question better steer clear of the sarcasm, cynicism, or a rosy view of human nature. Only Messiah can save you from the human weaknesses that the enemy can exploit to deceive you. Our struggle is not against mere humans and human thinking, but against principalities and powers in high places that utterly hate God and seek to injure him as much as possible by stealing away the love and loyalty of those who love him.


1. In this case the Babylonian astronomers might have been able to tell the public that there was a 100% probability that the new moon day would be the first day of the week that year for Nisan 1, in 397 BC. The text reads that Ezra “founded,” which means he scheduled the departure for this day but as it turned out, there was a delay because Ezra wanted to persuade Levites to join them who had not come. So the set out on the 12 day of the month. But the point is, whatever the circumstances or the predictions, a Sabbath would not have been the scheduled day. A fixed day of the week would have been determined.

2. Horn and Wood, pg. 102. A document dated to Kislimu in the 21st year of Xerxes is referred to in the 13th year of Artaxerxes. This does not mean that Xerxes died after that month. It only means the scribe preferred to refer to the 21st year of Xerxes rather than the accession year of Artaxerxes. A piece of evidence that says Xerxes died outweighs one that must be interpreted using an assumption. The assumption here is that documents are never dated to the last year of a king who has died in the remaining months of the year. The other document, BM32234 shows clearly that this is not so.

Concerning AP 6, Horn and Wood say that the scribe started out to date it 18th of Kislev, which is the [17th] day of Thoth, in year 21...out of habit because he had forgotten that it was Artaxerxes accession year! (pg. 103). And then he added that it was the accession year of Artaxerxes after he caught himself. We see here that the assumption is disproved. A Scribe did date a document to Xerxes after he died, and only because he remembered to do so, added that it was the accession year. What if a scribe did that and did not remember, but followed his habit? We see that the assumption is disproved. And therefore, the other aforementioned document does not prove Xerxes died after Kislev.

It should be noted that before BM32234 was discovered, H.F. Clinton placed the death of Xerxes in July 465 BC. It should also be noted that the 20th year in Nehemiah 1:1 is not ascribed to any King, and perhaps refers to the fact that it was the 20th year of the Jubilee cycle. At least this is an interesting coincidence.

3. See Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ, Harold Hoehnher, pg. 138-139.

4. Additional arguments are often adduced from Revelation. The numbers 1260 days and 42 months are mentioned for approximately the same periods of time. The error is in assuming that a strict equation is meant. Forty-two months is 1240 days (29.5 x 42 = 1240), give or take a day. Now the assumption that 1260 should be divided by 42 to yield all 30 days months is invalid (i.e. 1260/42 = 30). Allowing this depends on the assumption that the months should be all 30 days in the first place. And that is circular reasoning. Likewise, the assumption that the phrase a time, times, and half a time, always mean 1260 days should not be made. This is no different than saying a year, two years, and half a year in English. The value of the precision is no better than the precision of the stated time unit. A year may be 365 or 366 days just as a month 29 or 30 days. So trying to achieve precision by assuming it is always 30 days or that a year is 365 days when it is not stated which is begging the question. Furthermore, the text of Revelation does not even say that 1260 days and 42 months measure the same things. The 42 months pertain to the time the holy city is trodden under, and the 1260 days to the number of days the two witnesses prophesy and that Israel is protected in the wilderness. The first 1260 days fall into the first half of the last seven years, and the second into the second half. The exact starting and end points of the 1260 days are not necessarily the same as for the 42 months.

5. Robert C. Newmann, “Daniel’s Seventy Weeks and the Old Testament Sabbath-Year Cycle,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, XVI (Fall, 1973), 232-34.

6. Where n = {1, 2, 3, ....}. This is merely a way of saying that we don’t know when the 70th seven will begin, but that it will probably begin 7 years before one of the Jubilee years.


E1. Count up the number of Sabbatical years between 445 BC and AD 34. The decree was issued in Nisan, the spring of 445, and the Sabbatical year began Tishri 1 that year, in the fall. In the BC/AD system there is no year zero. The years are counted: .... 2 BC, 1 BC, AD 1, AD 2 ...

There are several ways to solve a problem like this. The key is to do it in such a way that you can be sure of your result. One could use a brute force method and simply list out all the Sabbath years, subtracting 7 years at a time to find the next Sabbath year, and then counting them up. I show this done later in this article. This is because it is the simplest and easiest to understand. Having so many subtractions, however, it is the simplest to goof up with a simple math error in a long chain of subtractions. For this reason when using the brute force method, I used a computer spreadsheet to do the math for me! But if you do not trust your computer, there are other shorter ways to do the problem on paper. It just requires some creative thinking.

First add up seven sevens and sixty two sevens: 7 + 62 = 69. So this is 69 Sabbath years total. Set up the problem like this:

Tishri 1, 445 to Tishri 1 444  = 1st Sabbath Year  

Now what we want to do is subtract seven years from the left of this equation, and add seven years to the right of this equation. This is because years BC decrease as you go forward in time, and sabbatical years increase in number. Adding seven years to the right side is the same as adding the next Sabbatical year. So do it like this:

Tishri 1, 445 to Tishri 1 444  = 1st Sabbath Year
           -7              -7    +1
Tishri 1, 438 to Tishri 1 437  = 2nd Sabbath Year					 

Now we want to speed this process up. It would be a pain to repeat it 69 times. So we want to subtract multiple Sabbath periods all at one time. On the other hand we do not want to zoom past the BC/AD boundary because we would end up with confusing negative numbers. We want to slow down and step past the boundary carefully before finishing. So let us estimate the multiple needed to get to the BC/AD boundary. If we divided 438 by 7 we get 62.57. Drop the decimal. So 62. Let us now use 62 as a multiple of periods:

Tishri 1, 445 to Tishri 1 444  = 1st Sabbath Year
           -7              -7    +1
Tishri 1, 438 to Tishri 1  437  = 2nd Sabbath Year
         -7x62           -7x62   +1x62
       = -434           = -434  =+62
Tishri 1,   4 to Tishri 1    3  = 64th Sabbath year			 

The 64th Sabbath year comes between 4 BC and 3 BC. This is because 438-434 = 4, and 437-434 = 3, and 2 + 62 = 64. Now let us carefully step year to year one sabbatic period over that dreaded BC/AD boundary, so we do not make the dreaded mistake of doing a math operation over it:

Tishri 1, 445 to Tishri 1 444  = 1st Sabbath Year
           -7              -7    +1
Tishri 1, 438 to Tishri 1  437  = 2nd Sabbath Year
         -7x62           -7x62   +1x62
       = -434           = -434  =+62
Tishri 1,   4 to Tishri 1    3  = 64th Sabbath year	
Tishri 1, 3 BC to Tishri 1 2 BC = 1st year of cycle
Tishri 1, 2 BC to Tishri 1 1 BC = 2nd year of cycle
Tishri 1, 1 BC to Tishri 1 1 AD = 3rd year of cycle*
Tishri 1, 1 AD to Tishri 1 2 AD = 4th year of cycle*
Tishri 1, 2 AD to Tishri 1 3 AD = 5th year of cycle
Tishri 1, 3 AD to Tishri 1 4 AD = 6th year of cycle
Tishir 1, 4 AD to Tishri 1 5 AD = 65th Sabbath year		 

Notice the operations with the *. Here I stepped from 1 BC to 1 AD, and not from 1 BC to 0 BC or 0 AD. Let us now continue the operation with a multiple. We need 4 more Sabbatical years:

Tishri 1, 445 to Tishri 1 444  = 1st Sabbath Year
           -7              -7    +1
Tishri 1, 438 to Tishri 1  437  = 2nd Sabbath Year
         -7x62           -7x62   +1x62
       = -434           = -434  =+62
Tishri 1,   4 to Tishri 1    3  = 64th Sabbath year	
Tishri 1, 3 BC to Tishri 1 2 BC = 1st year of cycle
Tishri 1, 2 BC to Tishri 1 1 BC = 2nd year of cycle
Tishri 1, 1 BC to Tishri 1 1 AD = 3rd year of cycle*
Tishri 1, 1 AD to Tishri 1 2 AD = 4th year of cycle*
Tishri 1, 2 AD to Tishri 1 3 AD = 5th year of cycle
Tishri 1, 3 AD to Tishri 1 4 AD = 6th year of cycle
Tishri 1, 4 AD to Tishri 1 5 AD = 65th Sabbath year
         +4x7            + 4x7    +1x4
       = +28           = + 28   = +4
Tishri 1, 32 AD to Tishri 1 33 AD = 69th Sabbath year
Tishri 1, 33 AD to Tishri 1 34 AD = 1st year of cycle
Messiah was cut off in the spring of AD 34.			 

We can check the prophecy. It says “after the 62 sevens Messiah will be cut off,” and this includes the 7 sevens before the 62.

E2. Now do the first exercise by counting seven Sabbath years first. Then start over with 1 and count 62 sabbath years until #62 = Tishri 1, AD 32 to Tishri 1, AD 33.


Tishri 1, 445 to Tishri 1 444  = 1st Sabbath Year
           -7x6         -7x6    +1x6
Tishri 1, 403 to Tishri 1 402  = 7th Sabbath Year
           -7              -7    0 (start again)
Tishri 1, 396 to Tishri 1 395  = 1st Sabbath Year (of 62)
         -56x7           -56*7   +56
Tishri 1, 4 BC to Tishri 1 3 BC = 57th Sabbath Year
Tishri 1, 4 AD to Tishri 1 5 AD = 58th Sabbath Year (see result in Exercise 1).
         +4x7            +4x7     +4
Tishri 1, 32 AD to Tishri 1 33 AD = 62nd Sabbath Year
And now Messiah is cut off after 62 sevens.
And he rises again also.
The only one to defeat death who promised us life.

E3. Add up 7 + 62 + 1, but use Roman Numerals. L=50, X=10, V=5, I=1.


7 =   VII
62 = LXII
1  =    I

First column: I + I + I = III
Second column: I + I = II
Third column: V + X = XV
Now III + II = V.
And XV + V = XX.
And L + XX = LXX = 70.

E4. Make a list of all the promises given in Daniel 9:4 that are to be completed in Seventy Sevens, or right at the end of them:


1. to finish transgression
2. to seal up sin
3. to wipe away iniquity
4. to bring in everlasting righteousness 
5. to seal the vision
6. to seal the prophet
7. to anoint the holy of holies

E5. Daniel 9:24 says, “to seal the Prophet.” Who is the Prophet? What does it mean to Seal the Prophet?

Answer: See Deuteronomy 18:18 and 34:10. See John 1:21, 3:33, 4:19, 4:44, 6:14. The key answer is in John 3:33: It means to certify and testify that Yeshua of Nazareth is the promised Messiah for Israel. John also puts the answer into the mouth of the people in 6:14 in case anyone has missed the answer.

E6. Many translators did not understand the meaning of נָבִיא Naνı in Daniel 9:24, and instead put “prophecy,” or something other than prophet. Find some bible versions you have and check to see which are right and which are wrong.


Incorrect                Correct          
KJ21  prophecy           AMP  prophet
ASV   prophecy           AMPC prophet
BRG   prophecy           CJB  prophet
CEB   prohetic         DARBY  prophet
CEV   prophets           ESV  prophet
DRA   prophecy         ESVUK  prophet
ERV   prophets           LEB  prophet
EXB   prophecy          NRSV  prophet
GNV   prophecy         NRSVA  prophet
GW    prophet’s vision   OJB  navi  
GNT   prophecy       NRSVACE  prophet
HSCB  prophecy        NRSVCE  prophet
ICB   prophecy           RSV  prophet
JUB   prophecy         RSVCE  prophet
KJV   prophecy           YLT  prophet
AKJV  prophecy           JPS  prophet
TLB   prophets             
MSG   confirm what the
      prophet saw
MEV   prophecy
NOG   prophet’s vision
NABRE prophecy
NASB  prophecy
NCV   prophecy
NET   prophetic vision
NIRV  prophecies
NIV   prophecy
NIVUK prophecy
NKJV  prophecy
NLV   -------
NLT   prophetic vision
TLV   prophecy
TNK   prophetic vision
VOICE prophet’s vision
WEB   prophecy
WYC   prophecy

There are many more versions than these to check. Out of the four Jewish versions listed, CJB, OJB, JPS, and TNK, 3 of 4 are correct. Translators are like lemmings. They have a tendency to follow one another off of a cliff. If one reads the Hebrew text you cannot miss the fact that it says, “prophet.” Do not think however that because 3 of 4 Jewish versions came out right in this case that these translators are not also subject to the lemming effect. They are on other texts.

E7. Look up “prophet” in Deut. 18:18 in a Hebrew Bible. You cannot miss it. It is the first word of the verse: נָבִיא, Naνı. Now locate the same word in Daniel 9:24. There is a slight difference. What is it?

Answers: The Hebrew in Daniel 9:24 is וְנָבִ֔יא, wɘNaνı. There is an extra syllable attached to the beginning. This is the word “and” in Hebrew, which is commonly attached to nouns: וְ, . If you are a really astute reader, you will also have seen that there is a different accent mark over the ב. In Daniel 9:24, the accent mark functions as a comma or semicolon in English, it marks the end of the phrase, “vision and prophet;

E8. If the question of prophecy vs. prophet where to be settled in Dan. 9:24 by a majority vote, which side would win? If the question were to be settled by the total number of translators with Ph.d’s in Hebrew, which side would win? If the question were settled by the numbers of Christians using the versions or the number of denominations preferring a version, then which side would win?

Answer: (1) prophecy, (2) Not known, but there are a lot of Ph.d.’s involved on the incorrect side of the list. (3) prophecy, by a long way. This shows that you should always beware of authority and majority. An authority is trustworthy when they show you why something is true, but a hazard when they can only declare something is true. Missing the connection between Prophet and Messiah is much more hazardous than doubting the naked pronouncements of authorities.

E9. The Rabbis have confused themselves, or created confusion, on where in the Sabbatical cycle the 1st Temple was destroyed by claiming the two temples were destroyed in year one of the cycle. This is because they reckoned the building of the first Temple 70 years from the destruction of the first instead of counting the exile according to the years of King Jehoiachin’s exile. Somewhere along the line, the memory that the exile was in the first year of the Sabbatic cycle, and that the return was in the first year of the cycle got confused with the date for the destruction of the first Temple. Jehoiachin was exiled in 597 BC in the spring, and the exiles returned at the end of the first year of Cyrus (aka Cambyses), and set up the altar again in Tishri of 528 BC. Using 445/444 BC as the base year for the Sabbatical cycle, show by calculation that spring 597 BC and fall 528 BC are the first year of a Sabbatic cycle. Show that the destruction date of the first Temple (Aν 9, 587 BC) is not in the first year of the cycle. What year of the cycle is it really in?

Answer: First add one year to the base date to yield the first year of the cycle. Then estimate the distance between the target years with multiple of seven. Then compute the first year of the cycle near the target dates to see if they are indeed the target dates.

Tishri 1, 445 BC to Tishri 1 444 BC  = Sabbatical Year
           +1                  +1   
Tishri 1, 444 BC to Tishri 1 443 BC  = Year 1 of cycle.
TEST 597 spring:
Distance between 597 and 444 = 153.
Divide by 7. 153/7 = 21.85.
Round off: 22.
Now go backward from  Year 1 of the cycle 22 x 7 years.

Tishri 1, 444 BC to Tishri 1 443 BC  = Year 1 of cycle.
         +22*7              +22*7 
Tishri 1, 598 BC to Tishri 1 597 BC  = Year 1 of cycle.

The spring of 597 lies between these limits. Confirmed.
TEST 528 fall:
Distance between 528 and 444 =  84 years.
Divide 84 by 7: 84/7 = 12.
Now go backward from Year 1 of the cycle 12 x 7 years.

Tishri 1, 444 BC to Tishri 1 443 BC  = Year 1 of cycle.
         +12*7              +12*7 
Tishri 1, 528 BC to Tishri 1 527 BC  = Year 1 of cycle.

Tishri 528 falls in these limits, so it is confirmed that the
first year they returned from exile was the first year of the cycle.
TEST 587, Aν 9.
Distance between 587 and 444 = 143 years.
Divide 143 by 7: 143/7 = 20.42.
Round off: 20.

Now go backward from Year 1 of the cycle 20 x 7 years.

Tishri 1, 444 BC to Tishri 1 443 BC  = Year 1 of cycle.
         +20*7              +20*7 
Tishri 1, 584 BC to Tishri 1 583 BC  = Year 1 of cycle.
step back  +1                 +1       to year 7 of cycle
Tishri 1, 585 BC to Tishri 1 584 BC  = Year 7 of cycle.
Step back  +1                 +1       to year 6 of cycle
Tishri 1, 586 BC to Tishri 1 585 BC  = Year 6 of cycle.
Step back  +1                 +1       to year 5 of cycle.
Tishri 1, 587 BC to Tishri 1 586 BC  = Year 5 of cycle.
Step back  +1                 +1       to year 4 of cycle.
Tishri 1, 588 BC to Tishri 1 587 BC  = Year 4 of cycle.

Aν 9, 587 BC is contained between the last set.
So the first Temple was destroyed in year 4 of the cycle.

E10.The figure 657 was obtained by counting all enumerated years, i.e. inclusively (587 + 70 = 657). Figure out the actual time in lunar years between 9 Aν, 587 and 9 Aν, AD 70.

Answer: Problems like this are easily understood by doing a simple example and then scaling up the method. What is the time between 9 Aν 1 BC and 9 Aν 1 AD? It is exactly 1 lunar year, because there is no 0 year. But if we add 1 + 1 = 2, we get 2 years inclusively. This like our adding 587 and 70 to get 657. So the answer is one less: 656. This should warn the reader about using someone else’s figures for continuing a calculation without understanding what the figure really represents. 657 years counts all BC/AD years from 587 BC to AD 70 whether part or whole using a one to one correspondence. The figure 656 counts whole lunar years. Another method is to convert 587 BC to an astronomical year so that we can use the 0 based number line of astronomical calculation. So 587 BC = -586 (1 BC = 0). Let the variable X represent Aν 9. So we have -586.X and 70.X. Since X=X in both cases we do not have to assign a fractional value of either year for it. Calculate like this |-586.X - 70.X| = |-586 + X - (70 + X)| = |-586+X-70-X| = |-586-70| = |-586 + -70| = |-656| = 656. For the math challenged, I will spell out the formal steps:

|-586.X - 70.X|
|-586 + X - (70 + X)|  Split the decimal fraction from the whole years.
|-586+X-70-X|          Use the distributive property to eliminate the ()
                       i.e. - (70+X) = -1*(70+X) = -1*70 + -1*X = -70 - X.
|-586-70|              X - X = 0
|-586 + -70|           The rule for subtracting negatives: add the opposite.
|-656|                 or distribute out -1*(586 + 70) = -1*656 = -656
656                    Take the absolute value. This just means there is no such
                       thing as negative time. History only goes forward.

E11.The current Jewish year is 5776. In the 19 year cycle the following years have 13 months: 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th. Find out which year of the cycle the Rabbinic Calendar is in, and determine if it is a leap year.

Answer: If we divide the Rabbinical Jewish year by 19 then the remainder of the division will give us the year of the cycle except when the division is even. Then the remainder is 0. The term MOD (reMainder Of Division) is used to express this operation. For example 10 MOD 3 = 1. This is because 3 goes 3 times into 10 with a remainder of 1. The percent sign % is also used to represent the MOD operation. So 20 % 7 = 6. Seven goes 2 times into 20 with a remainder of 6, i.e. 7 x 2 + 6 = 20. If we take Jewish year 37 % 19, then 37 MOD 19 = 18. 19 goes once into 37 with remainder 18. 18 + 19 = 37. So year 37 of the Jewish Era is year 18 of the cycle. It is not a leap year. Year 38 MOD 19 = 0. 19 goes 2 times with no remainder. This is year 19 of the cycle. So let us test Jewish year 5776 MOD 19. 5776 MOD 19 = 0. So this year is the 19th year of the cycle and it is a leap year.

Jewish year 5776 corresponds to AD 2016. Since it is the 19th year of the cycle, a 13th month was intercalated in the spring, a II Adar after I Adar. But since the schematic 19 year cycle is 2 hours longer than 19 solar years, continuous use of it causes the 13th month to be added in years where it does not need to be. So for AD 2016, the Rabbinic Calendar runs a month late.