10 When a man may give to his neighbor a donkey or ox or flock animal, or¹ any beast to guard, and it has died or it has been broken, or it has been taken captive† unseen, 11 a swearing by¹ Yăhwēh shall be between the two of them,
14 And when a man may borrow¹ from with his neighbor, and it has been broken, or it has died, the owner of it
|16||16 And when a man seduces a maiden that has not been betrothed, and he has lain with her, endowing he shall endow† her for himself as a wife. 17 If making be refused he will make it be refused, her father, to give her to him, silver he shall weigh out according to the endowment of a¹ maiden.²|
|18||18 A sorceress† you will not keep to be alive.|
|19||19 Everyone who lies with a beast, death he will be made die.|
|21||21 And a sojourner you shall not make oppressed, and you shall not press† him, because you had been sojourners in the land of Egypt.|
22 Any widow and orphan you shall not make to be afflicted. 23 If making be afflicted you will make him to be afflicted, yea if crying out he will cry out unto me,
25 If silver you will make lent with my people, with the poor with you,
26 If binding¹ you will bind the coat of your neighbour |
|28||28 The Almighty you may not make to be light of.† And the ruler‡ over your people you may not curse.|
29 Your fullness
30 And men of holiness you all† shall be to me. And flesh in the field,
1 You may not carry a false report. You shall not put your hand with a wicked
4 When you may encounter the ox of your enemy, or his donkey wandering, making returned you shall make it¹ returned to him. 5 When you see the donkey of one hating you laying down under its burden, then you will have ceased from leaving it to him, loosing you shall loose
|6||6 You shall not make bent the justice of your needy in his dispute.|
|7||7 From a false word you shall be far, and the innocent and righteous you shall not kill, because I will not make righteous the wicked.¹ 8 A bribe you shall not take, because the bribe will make to be blind the sighted, and it will make to be perverted the words of the righteous.|
|9||9 And a sojourner you shall not oppress, and you have known the soul of the sojourner, because sojourners you have been in the land of Egypt.|
10 And six years you shall sow your land, and you will have gathered the production of it. 11 And the seventh you shall let it drop, and you will have abandoned it, and the poor with you will have eaten it, and their remainder the wild animal of the field will eat. Thus you will do for your vineyard, for your olive |
|12||12 Six days you shall do your work, and on the seventh day, you shall cease, so that your ox may rest, and your donkey. And shall refresh himself the son of your maidservant and the sojourner.|
|13||13 And in all which I have said unto you, you will watch yourselves, and the name of other gods, you shall not make remembered. It shall not be heard upon your mouth.|
14 Three foot journeys you will feast to me in the year: 15 The feast of unleavened bread you shall keep a seven of the days. You shall eat unleavened bread as that I have made to be commanded, at the appointed time, |
18 You may not sacrifice the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread, and not may lodge |
19 The first of the first fruits of your soil, you will make come |
20 Behold, I |
24 You may not make yourselves to be bowing down to their gods, and you may not serve them, and you may not do according to their deeds, but making to be torn down, you will make them to be torn down, and making to be shattered, you will make to be shattered their pillars. 25 And you will have served Yăhwēh your Almĭghty, and he will have made to be blessed your bread, and your water, and I will have made turn aside sickness from your midst. 26 There will not be one making to be miscarried, and barren in your land. The number of your days I will make to be full. 27 The dread of me I will make to be sent before your faces, and I will have confused all the people which you will come among them, and I will have given all your enemies unto you |
32 You may not cut, for them and for their gods, a covenant. 33 They may not dwell in your land, lest they make you sin against me. When you serve their gods,
|1||1 And unto Mōshēh he had said, “Ascend unto Yăhwēh, you and A̕harōn, Nadav̱ and A̕v̱i̱hū’, and the Seventy from the Elders of Yisra’ēl, and you will have made yourselves to be worshiping from afar.” 2 And Mōshēh alone will have drawn himself near unto Yăhwēh, and they shall not draw themselves near, and the people shall not ascend with him.|
3 Then Mōshēh came. Then he recounted to the people all the words of Yăhwēh, and all the judgments. Then all the people replied |
9 Then Mōshēh ascended, and A̕harōn, Nadav̱, and A̕v̱i̱hū’, and the Seventy from the elders of Yisra’ēl. 10 Then they saw the Almĭghty of Yisra’ēl. And under his feet, |
12 Then Yăhwēh said unto Mōshēh, “Ascend unto me to the mountain, and be there. And I want¹ to give to you the tablets of ᵅstone, and the ᵝInstruction, and the commandment which I have written to instructᵞ them.” 13 Then Mōshēh rose up, and Yehōshūa̒, his minister. Then Mōshēh ascended unto the mountain of the Almĭghty. 14 And unto the elders he had said, “Remain for us here until when we may return unto you. And behold A̕harōn and Ḥūr |
15 Then Mōshēh ascended unto the mountain. Then the cloud made to be covered the mountain. 16 Then the glory of Yăhwēh settled upon mount Si̱nai̱. Then the cloud made to be covered it six days. Then he called unto Mōshēh on the seventh day from the midst of the cloud.‡ 17 And the appearance of the glory of Yăhwēh
1 Then, Yăhwēh made to be spoken unto Mōshēh saying, 2 “Make to be spoken unto the sons of Yisra’ēl, thatᵅ they shall take for me a ᵪcontribution. From with every man whose heart inclines him they shall take my contribution. 3 And this |
|8||8 And they will have made for me a holy place, and I willᵅ have dwelled in the midst of them. 9 According to all which I am making you see, the blueprint¹ of the dwelling, and the blueprint of every article of it, thus you will do.|
10 And you will have made an Arkᵅ of acacia wood. Two cubitsᵝ and a half |
13 And you will have made poles of acacia wood. And you will have made them to be overlaid |
|16||16 And you will have put into the Ark the testimony which I will give unto you.|
17 And you will have made a ḳappōretᵅ of pure gold. Two cubits and a half |
|18||18 And you will have made two kerūv̱i̱mᵅ of gold. Hammered work you will make them, at the two ends of the ḳappōret. 19 And make one kerūv̱ at oneᵅ end, and one kerūv̱ at the other end. From the ḳappōret you will make the kerūv̱i̱m upon the two ends of it. 20 And the kerūv̱i̱m will have been ones spreading out two wings upwards, covering with their wings over the ḳappōret. And their faces, each unto his brother, at† the ḳappōret, they will be, the faces of the kerūv̱i̱m.|
21 And you will have put the ḳappōret upon the Ark, above, and into the Ark you will put the testimony which I will give unto you. 22 And I will have appointed myself to you there. And I will have made to be spoken with you from above the ḳappōret, from between the two kerūv̱i̱m, which |
23 And you will have made a table of acacia wood, two cubits |
|30||30 And you will have put upon the table the bread of the face before my face continually.|
31 And you will have made a menōrahᵅ of pure gold. A beaten work you shall make the menōrah. Its base and its ᵞstalk, its cups, its ᵝcapitals, its flowers, from of itself¹ shall be, 32 and six stalks going outᵅ from its side, three stalks of the menōrah from the one side of it, and three stalks of the menōrah from the second side of it, 33 three ᵝcups, being made to be almond-blossoms, in the first stalk, a capital, and flower; and three cups, being made to be almond-blossoms, in the nextᵅ stalk, a capital, and flower;
1 And the dwellingᵅ you shall make |
|6||6 And you will have made fifty hooks of gold. And you will have made to be joined the curtains each unto its sister by the hooks. And the dwelling will have become ᵅone.|
7 And you will have made curtains of goats |
12 And |
14 And you will have made a covering for the tent, skins of rams, being made to be dyed red, and a covering, skins of seals, |
15 And you will have made theᵅ framesᵝ for the dwelling, acacia wood, standing |
|26||26 And you will have made bars of acacia wood, five for the frames of the first ribᵅ of the dwelling, 27 and five bars for the frames of second rib of the dwelling, and five bars for the rib frames of the dwelling, at the flank of the sea, seaward.ᵅ|
28 And the middle bar in the midst of the frames |
30 And you will have made stand the dwelling according to its order which you had been made to see on the mountain. 31 And you will have made a veil, blue and and purple, and worm of sarlet, and finely interwoven linen, being made twisted. A work of design one will make it
1 And you will have made the altar, acacia wood, five cubits long, and five cubits wide. The altar shall be square, and three cubits
4 And you will have made for it a grating, a bronze net work. And you will have made upon the net four rings of bronze, upon the four extremities of it. 5 And you will have put it under the rim of the altar extendable downward. And it will have come as far as the half way point of the altar. 6 And you will have made poles for the altar, poles of acacia wood. And you will have made them to be overlaid |
9 And you will have made the court of the dwelling. At the edge south southward, hangings for the court, finely interwoven linen being made twisted. A hundred in ᵅcubit|
11 And likewise at the edge north. In the length, the hangings |
12 And the width of the court at the sea edge hangings |
16 And for the gate of the court, a screen twenty cubit|
19 For all the articles of the dwelling, in every service of it, and all the pegs of it, and all the pegs of the court, |
20 And you, you will make to be commanded the sons of Yisra’ēl. And they shall take unto you pure beaten olive oil for the light to make the lamp go up continually. 21 In the tent of appointment, outside of the veil, which
1 And you, make come near unto you A̕harōn your brother, and his sons with him, from the midst of the sons of Yisra’ēl, to make him to be priest for me, A̕harōn, Nadav̱ and A̕v̱i̱hū’, E̕l‘azar and Ī’tamar, sons of A̕harōn. 2 And you will have made holy garments for A̕harōn your brother for glory and for beauty. 3 And you, you make to be spoken unto every one most intelligent of mind, whom I will make to be filled |
4 And these |
5 And they shall receive the gold, and the blue, and the purple, and the worm of scarlet, and the finely interwoven linen. 6 And they will have made the girdle vest, |
9 And you will have taken two stones of onyx, and you will have made to be engraved upon them the names of the sons of Yisra’ēl. 10 Six out of their names |
15 And you will have made the beautiful breastpiece of judgment, a work of planning according to the work of the girdle vest. You will make it gold, blue, and purple, and worm of scarlet, and finely interwoven linen. Being made twisted you will make it. 16 Being square it will be, being doubled over, a span
21 And the stones will be according to the names of the sons of Yisra’ēl, twelve, according to their names, an engraving of a seal
|27||27 And you will have made two rings of gold. And you will have put them upon the two shoulders of the girdle vest extending downward on the front of its face, adjacent to its joining place up above the plan of the girdle vest. 28 Thenᵅ they shall tie the beautiful breastpiece from its ringsᵝ unto the rings of the girdle vest with the cords of blue to be upon the plan of the girdle vest. And the beautiful breast piece shall not be removed from over the girdle vest.|
|29||29 And A̕ harōn will have carried the names of the sons of Yisra’ēl on the beautiful breastpiece of judgment over his heart in his entering unto the holy place for a remembrance before the face of Yăhwēh continually. 30 And you will have put into the beautiful breastpiece of judgment the ū̕ri̱m and the tūmi̱m. And they will have been over the heart of A̕ harōn in his entering before the face of Yăhwēh. And A̕ harōn will have carried the judgment of the sons of Yisra’ēl over his heart before Yăhwēh continually.|
31 And you will have made the over vestmentᵅ of the girdle vest wholly of blue. 32 And there will have been a mouth atᵅ its head, in the midst of it. A lip will be at the mouth of it round about, a work of weaving, like the mouth of a taḥra̕.ᵝ It will be for it; |
36 And you will have made a crest flourish of pure gold. And you will have made to be engraved upon it, |
39 And you will have inlaid the long robe |
42 And make for them linen pants to make to be covered the naked flesh. From the hips and onward the thighs they will be. 43 And they will have been upon A̕harōn and upon his sons in their going into the tent of appointment, or in their drawing near unto the altar, to make to be ministry in the holy place, and they will not bear iniquity, so thatᵅ they will have died. A statute of time immemorial
1 And this |
4 And A̕harōn and his sons you will make come near unto the door of the tent of appointment. And you will have washed them in water. 5 And you will have taken the garments. And you will have made A̕harōn clothed with the long robe, and with the over vestment ofᵅ the girdle vest, and the girdle vest, and the beautiful breast piece. And you will have girdle vested him with the plan of the girdle vest. 6 And you will have set the turban upon his head. And you will have put the consecration crest upon the turban. 7 And you will have taken the oil of anointing. And you will have poured |
8 And his sons you shall make come near. And you will have made them clothed |
10 And you will have made the bull come near at the face of the tent of appointment. And A̕harōn and his sons will have laid their hands upon the head of the bull. 11 And you will have slaughtered the bull before the face of Yăhwēh, |
19 And you will have taken the second ram. And A̕harōn and his sons will have laid their hands upon the head of the ram. 20 And you will have slaughtered the ram. And you will have taken from its blood. And you will have put |
29 And the holy garments of A̕harōn will be for his sons after him for |
31 And the ram of being made to be filled† you will take. And you will have boiled its flesh in a holy place. 32 And A̕harōn will have eaten, and his sons, the flesh of the ram, and the bread which |
34 And if will be remaining from the flesh of the being made to be †filled
1 And you will have made an altar |
10 And A̕harōn will have made to be a wiping upon its horns once in the year, from the blood of the kippūri̱m sin offering. Once in the year he will make to be a wiping upon it into your generations. Holiest holiness it |
11 Then Yăhwēh made to be spoken unto Mōshēh, saying, 12 “When you take up the ¹head|
17 Then Yăhwēh made to be spoken |
22 The Yăhwēh made to be spoken |
31 And unto the sons of Yisra’ēl, you will make to be spoken, saying, “The oil of holy anointing, this will be, for me, into your generations. 32 Upon the flesh of man it shall not be made †rubbed. And with its measurement they may not make the like of it. Holy it |
|34||34 Then Yăhwēh said unto Mōshēh, “Take for yourself fragrances, †stacte, and ‡onycha, and galbanum¹ fragrances, and pure frankincense, one part with one part each will be. 35 And you will have made it incense smoke, a perfume, the work of a perfumer, being made to be salted, pure, holy. 36 And you will have pulverized from it a finely made crushing. And you will have put from it before the face of the testimony, in the tent of appointment, where I appoint myself for you thither. Holiest holiness it will be for you. 37 And the incense smoke which you will make, in its measurement, you may not make for yourselves. Holy it will be for you to Yăhwēh. 38 A man who may make the like of it for making perfume with it, then he will have been cut off from his people.”|
1 Then Yăhwēh made to be spoken unto Mōshēh, |
12 Then Yăhwēh said unto Mōshēh, saying, 13 “And you, make to be spoken unto the sons of Yisra’ēl, saying, ‘Surely my Sabbaths you shall keep, because a sign it |
|18||18 Then he gave unto Mōshēh, as he finished, making to be spoken with him on mount Si̱nai̱, the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone being written with the finger of the Almĭghty.|
1 Then the people saw that Mōshēh made to be delayed to descend from the mountain. Then the people assembled itself in front of A̕harōn. Then they said unto him, “Rise, make for us gods which will go before our faces, because this Mōshēh, the man who had made us ascend out of the land of Egypt, we have not known what what has happened to him.” 2 Then A̕harōn said unto them, “Make to be torn off the rings of gold which |
|5||5 Then A̕harōn saw. Then he built an altar before the face of it. Then A̕harōn proclaimed. Then he said, “A feast to Yăhwēh tomorrow!” 6 Then they made to rise early in the morrow. Then they made ascend ascending offerings. Then they made come near well-being offerings. Then the people sat down for eating and drinking. Then they rose up to make to be merriment.|
7 Then Yăhwēh made to be spoken unto Mōshēh, “Go! Down! Because your people has been† made to be corrupt, which you have made ascend from the land of Egypt! 8 They have turned aside quickly from the way which I have made to be commanded them. They have made for themselves a calf, a poured metal image. And¹ they make themselves to be bowing down to it. And¹ they sacrifice to it. ¹And, they say, ‘These |
9 Then Yăhwēh said unto Mōshēh, “I have seen this people, and behold, a people stiff necked
|14||14 Then Yăhwēh was sorry over the disaster which he had made to be spoken to do to his people. 15 Then he turned back.|
15b Then Mōshēh descended from the mountain. And the two tablets of the testimony
17 Then Yehōshū‘a heard the sound of the people with shouting. Then he said unto Mōshēh, “The sound of war
21 Then Mōshēh said unto A̕harōn, “What has this people done to you, that you have made come upon it great sin!” 22 Then A̕harōn said, “May anger not burn, my lord. You have known the people, that it
25 Then Mōshēh saw the people, that it was unrestrained, because A̕harōn had let
29 Then, Mōshēh said, “Make full your hands this day for Yăhwēh, because each man
|30||30 Then it was in the morrow. Then Mōshēh said unto the people, “You, you have sinned a great sin! And now I will ascend unto Yăhwēh. Perhaps I may make to be a wiping away on behalf of your sin.” 31 Then Mōshēh returned unto Yăhwēh. Then he said, “Alas this people has sinned a great sin. And¹ they made for themselves gods of gold. And now, if you will bear their sin, and if not, blot me out please from your book which you have written.”|
|33||33 And Yăhwēh said unto Mōshēh, “Whoever has sinned against me, I will blot him from my book! 34 And now go! Lead the people into what I have made to be commanded to you. Behold my Mĕssenger will go before your faces. And in the day of my attending, then I will have attended their sin upon them.”|
|35||35 Then Yăhwēh smote the people over what they had done with the calf, which A̕harōn had made.|
1 Then Yăhwēh made to be spoken unto Mōshēh, “Go! Ascend from here, you and the people which you have made ascend from the land of Egypt unto the land which I have sworn myself to A̕v̱raham, to Yitsḥaq, and to Ya‘aqōv̱, saying, “to your seed I will give it!” 2 And I will have sent at your face a messenger. And I will have made to be driven out the Kena‘ani̱, the E̕mōri̱, the Ḥitti̱, and the Perizzi̱, the Ḥiυυi̱, and the Yev̱ūsi̱. 3 Unto a land flowing milk and honey, but I will not ascend in the midst of you, because a people hard necked you
4 Then the people heard this disastrous word. Then they mourned. And and they had not put on, each man his ornaments upon himself. 5 Then Yăhwēh said unto Mōshēh, “Say unto the sons of Yisra’ēl, ‘You
7 And Mōshēh would take the tent, and he had been stretching it on the outside of the camp, making
|11||11 And Yăhwēh had made to be spoken unto Mōshēh, face to face, as that a man will make to be spoken unto his friend. And he had returned unto the camp. And the one making him to be served, Yehōshū‘a, son of Nūn, a young man, did not depart from the midst of the tent.|
12 Then Mōshēh said unto Yăhwēh, “See! You are saying unto me, make ascend this people. And you have not made declared
14 Then he said, “My face will go, and I will have made rest for you.” 15 Then he said unto him, “If your face
|18||18 Then he said make me see, please, your glory. 19 Then he said, “I, I will make pass all my goodness in front of your face. And I will have called on the name† Yăhwēh before your face. And I will have favored whom I may favor. And I will have made to be pitied whom I may make to be pitied.”|
|20||20 Then he said, “You will not be able to see my face, because no man may see me, and he will have lived.” 21 Then Yăhwēh said, “Look! A place next to me. And you will have stationed yourself upon the rock. 22 And it will have been in passing my glory, then I will have put you in a crevice of the rock. And I will have sheltered my palm over you until my passing. 23 Then I will have made my palm turn aside. And you will have seen my back. And my face will not be seen.”|
|1||1 Then Yăhwēh said unto Mōshēh, “Hew out for yourself two tablets of stones like the former. And I will have written upon the tablets the words which had been upon the first tablets which you have made to be shattered. 2 And be set for the daybreak. And you will have ascended in the daybreak unto the mountain of Si̱nai̱. And you will have stationed yourself next to me there upon the top of the mountain. 3 And no man shall ascend with you. And also let no man be seen in all the mountain. Also flocks, and cattle they may not pasture at the front of that mountain.”|
4 Then he hewed out two tablets of stones like the former ones. Then Mōshēh rose up early in the daybreak. Then he ascended unto the mountain of Si̱nai̱ as that Yăhwēh had made him to be commanded. Then he took the two tablets of stone in his hand. 5 Then Yăhwēh descended in the cloud. Then heᵅ made to be stationed himself with himᵝ there. Then, he called on† the name of Yăhwēh. 6 Then, Yăhwēh passed over his face. Then, he called out Yăhwēh, Yăhwēh, the merciful Gŏd, and gracious, slow to° anger, and abounding in° loving kindness and faithfulness. 7 Keeping watch over loving kindness to the thousandth-most
|9||9 Then he said, “If please I have found favor in your eyes, A̕dōnai̱, may you go, please A̕dōnai̱ in the midst of us, because a hard necked people it is, so that you will have forgiven our iniquity and our sin, so that you will have inherited us.”|
10 Then he said, “Behold I
|17||17 Gods of cast metal you may not make for yourselves.|
18 The feast of unleavened bread you shall keep, a seven of days. You shall eat unleavened bread, which I made to be commanded you at the appointed time °in the month of A̕v̱i̱v̱, because in the month of A̕v̱i̱v̱, you had gone out from Egypt. 19 Every opener of the womb
|29||29 And they will have been coupled extending downward. And both alike will be coupled unto its top, unto the first rings. So it will have been done to the two of them, for two corner buttresses.|
4 Then he made for the altar a grating, a bronze net work, under the rim of it, extendable downward until its half |
19 And their stands
|20||20 Then they made the two rings of gold. Then they put them upon the two shoulders of the ē̕phōd, extending downward on the front of the face of it, adjacent to its joining, up above the layout of the ē̕pōd.|
22:10¹ ^ LXX: ἢ. See BHS.
22:10† ^ i.e. rustled.
22:11¹ ^ construct.
22:14¹ ^ יִשׁאַל yisha̓l = he may ask.
22:15¹ ^ שָׂכִיר saḳi̱r = hired.
22:16† ^ מָהֹר יִמְהָרֶנָּה mahōr yimharennah = “giving the bride price he shall give her bride price.”
22:17¹ ^ generic article.
22:17² ^ בְּתוּלָה betūlah. The usual term for a never married woman, maid, maiden. The clinical term for virgin is עַלמָה a̒lmah = “hidden one,” i.e. one who nakedness has not been uncovered.
22:18† ^One who casts spells with the aid of a familiar spirit, or divines knowledge by the use of divination.
22:20† ^יָחָרָם yaḥaram = “he will be made banned” = Hophal of Hiphil infinitive: לְהַחֲרִים lehaḥari̱m. To make banned, i.e. devoted to destruction.
22:21† ^squeeze, crush.
22:26¹ ^לַחְבֹּל laḥbōl: to bind an item as collateral against a loan by taking it from the owner.
22:26² ^“Coming in” is a Hebrew idiom used to mean “setting” of the sun. The sun is viewed as going into its house for the night when it sets. It may mean some time preceding sunset, and sunset itself, but it does mean time closer to sunset than “between the settings.”
22:28† ^or “make to be cursed” from the verb root קלל qll, “to be light, a trifle.”
22:28‡ ^or “prince, leader.”
22:29† ^A noun referring to the juice of grapes in the presses, from לִדְמֹעַ lidōma̒ to weep, to cry, be teary.
22:30† ^The verb תִּהיוּן tihyūn ends with paragogic nūn, which denotes an archaic emphasis, which is indicated in English here by reinforcing the “you” with the word “all.”
22:30¹ ^See note 22:30†.
23:1† ^חָמָס ḥamas = “wrongful, violent”
23:2† ^From the verb לִהְיוֹת lihyōt “to fall out, happen, become.” The choice of the verb here give the sense that one just ends up going along for the ride, because they are too lazy to check on what their leaders are doing, or too undiscerning, and so “just happen” to get corralled into supporting an evil cause.
23:2¹ ^The verb here is לִנטֹת lintōt = “to stretch out, extend, bend.” The idea is that of bending justice and stretching the truth to go along with many in their evil aims.
23:3¹ ^i.e. favor, show partiality to.
23:4¹ ^The suffix has an energic nūn, which denotes archaic stress.
23:5† ^“Fallen down, and such a burden upon him that he cannot rise up again, but lies under it, and the owner of it is not able of himself to raise it up again” (Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible). A person might not help someone who hates them in general, but if the person really does get into trouble and needs help, then the principle is to help them. We are to cease leaving them to themselves when we see that they clearly need help. The Hebrew word rendered “leaving”, “loosing”, and “loose” is the same in all cases, and the play on words is intentional.
23:7¹ ^This is an important statement: לֹא־אַצדִּיק רָשָׁע lo̕-a̕tsdi̱q rasha̒, and if we compare the LXX, “οὐ δικαιώσεις τὸν ἀσεβῆ,” and Paul in Rom. 4:5, “τὸν δικαιοῦντα τὸν ἀσεβῆ,” then we see at once what is wrong with the Reformation doctrine of imputed righteousness. Here the texts means that the wicked man will not be declared righteous. That is, he will not be acquitted. Paul, on the other hand does not mean the opposite, which would be what the reformers claim, i.e. that he justifies (acquits) the sinner. What Paul means is that the Almĭghty will “do justice for the wicked,” and not that he will acquit them. This means that the sinner may be pardoned, and then the penalty is wiped away by the substitution of Messiah in place of the sinner. The requirement of justice is fulfilled for the sinner. This means the punitive penalty is paid on the sinner’s behalf, and not that he his positively declared righteous at trial. In Paul’s Greek the verb δικαιοω, δικαιουν meant to do justice to someone, i.e. to administer justice to them.
If we keep far from false testimony, then as a result the innocent will not be punished. False testimony could declare the wicked righteous in a case, and even if human judges make a mistake, Gŏd will be making no mistakes. Thus the reason us to seek to serve truthful justice is given, because in the end Gŏd will not declare the wicked righteous.
To “make (someone) righteous” in a trial or case means to declare them innocent of wrongdoing. The modern term for this is acquittal. A righteous judge can only pardon the wicked. The word pardon means to forgive or to find them guilty, but to show mercy in the sentencing phase. Messiah makes us righteous to change our lives after the trial, after we are found guilty, and pardoned because he paid the judicial penalty. He does not make us righteous at the trial. Yet the Reformer’s doctrine (being declared righteous at the trial) is mixed up with preaching that we are found guilty sinners, and then Messiah forgives us and pays the penalty. The result has been horrible confusion, and myriads of people who cannot understand the good news, though they hear it all the time.
23:15† ^See note on text in the next paragraph. It is held forth in this text that it is literally possible to see the face of Yăhwēh at the feasts, and prophetically speaking it is the divine intention for Yĕshūa̒ to be seen, i.e. the Almĭghty Sŏn. That he did not generally appear, or appear to everyone, as of yet, does not mean the words are incorrect. One does go up to see the face of Yăhwēh, or with the hope thereof that one day he will be seen. But he has simply not condescended to be seen in general during this age. The Jewish objections, not withstanding, the text should not have been altered by the scribes (see below).
Regarding: and my face will not be seen for nothing, “The standing phrase for visiting a sanctuary as a worshipper, esp. at the three great pilgrimages (Exodus 34:20; Exodus 34:23-24 [יִרְאֶה, לִרְאוֹת], Deuteronomy 31:11 [לִרְאוֹת] Samuel 1:22 [נִרְאֶה]), but also used more generally (Isaiah 1:12 [נִרְאֶה], Psalm 42:2 [אֶרְאֶה])... [and] Deuteronomy 16:16 [יִרְאֶה] (twice)...the existing punctuation does not represent the original vocalization, and ...the true sense of the phrase is (with other vowel points [indicated above]) see my face, see the face of Yahweh, i.e. visit Him as Sovereign The usual phrase for admission to the presence of a royal person (2 Samuel 3:13; 2 Samuel 14:28; 2 Samuel 14:32, 2 Kings 25:19; cf. Genesis 43:3) was applied to visiting the sanctuary; but as objection to the expression ‘seeing the face of God’ (cf. Exodus 33:20), the vocalization...was altered so as to express the idea of ‘appearing before God’” (Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges).
23:16† ^The going out of the year (בְּצֵאת הַשָּׁנָה, bɘtsē’t hashanah) refers to the decrease in the length of the day that begins at the summer solstice. The coming of the year refers to the increase in the length of the day after the winter solstice. The year is so divided into two halves, in which the spring feasts are during the part of the year when the day is increasing, and the fall feasts are during the part of the year when the day is decreasing.
It has been supposed by many that the phrase בְּצֵאת הַשָּׁנָה, bɘtsē’t hashanah refers to the fall equinox. However, it is not possible in theory, due to astronomical facts, to arrange a calendar in which the Passover is always in the spring at the beginning of the year, and in which the feast of Tabernacles always comes after the fall equinox. For often it does occur before the fall equinox. Accordingly, the phrase cannot mean in the part of the year after the fall equinox. I choose the year of Yĕshūa̒’s birth to illustrate this point, in which the feast of tabernacles and the last great day comes completely before the spring equinox. Many other years could be presented as an example of this.
Month: VII ETHANIM/TISHRI, 2 BC 4138 A.M. Sab. Cyc: 2. Jub. Cyc: 23 Cycle No: 84 Q1: 0.394 A Q2: -0.699 F LG: 44m W: 1.252' AL: 23.7 AV: 8.8 New Moon calculated for longitude: 35.17 and latitude 31.77 Location of calculations: Jerusalem Author: Daniel Gregg I SUN II MON III TUE IV WED V THU VI FRI VII SAB ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~██╫██▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ ↑ │ 1♦ │ 2 │ 3 │ 4 │ 5 │ 6 │ NMS │ NM DAY │ │ │ │ │ │ │ AUG 31 │ SEPT 1 │ SEPT 2 │ SEPT 3 │ │ │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~██╫██▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │ 7 │ 8 │ 9 │ 10 │ 11 │ 12 │ 13 │ │ │ │ │Y. Kippur│ │ │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~██╫██▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │ 14 │ 15 │ 16 │ 17 │ 18 │ 19 │ 20 │ │ │Sukkot │ │ │ │ │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~██╫██▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │ 21 │ 22 │ 23 │ 24 │ 25 │ 26 │ 27 │ │ │8th Day │ │ │ │ SEPT 26 │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒ EQUINOX │ 28 │ 29 │ 30 ↑ │ │ │ │ 9/30 │
The calendar for Tishri 2 BC above, in which year Aviv 15 fell on the day of the Spring Equinox (March 22, see chart below). The spring equinox occurs when the top of sun sets north of due west (270 degrees), keeping refraction in play, so that the method is observational. The fall equinox occurs when the top of the sun sets south of due west (270 degrees). In this year the fall equinox was on 9/26 several days after the last great day.
Month: I AVIV/NISAN, 2 BC 4138 A.M. Sab. Cyc: 1. Jub. Cyc: 22 Cycle No: 84 Q1: 0.727 A Q2: -1.024 G LG: 76m W: 0.599' AL: 15.7 AV: 15.6 New Moon calculated for longitude: 35.17 and latitude 31.77 Location of calculations: Jerusalem Author: Daniel Gregg I II III IV V VI VII ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ ↑ │ 1 │ AVIV/NISAN MAR 7 │New Moon │ │ │ │ │ │ │ NMS │ DAY │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │ 2 │ 3 │ 4 │ 5 │ 6 │ 7 │ 8 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ MAR 14 │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~██╫██▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │ 9 │ 10 │ 11 │ 12 │ 13 │ 14 │ 15 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ Passover| │ │ │ │ │ │ │ EQUINOX │ │ │ │ │ │ │ MAR 21 │ MAR 22 │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~██╫██▀▀▀▀▀█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │16-0-1 │17-0-2 │18-0-3 │19-0-4 │20-0-5 │21-0-6 │22-1-7 │ │ Sheaf │ │ │ │ │7thULB │ │ │ MAR 23 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │23-1-8 │24-1-9 │25-1-10 │26-1-11 │27-1-12 │28-1-13 │29-2-14 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
notes: ↑ = NMS = new moon sighted, March 7th. The middle of the month, Aviv 15, falls on the spring equinox. So in this case the Passover is not too early. The Rabbinic rule is that the 16th of Nisan (Aviv) must fall after the spring equinox. This is also the case as MARCH 23 (Aviv 16) is after the equinox.
23:17ᵅ ^See 23:15† and related passages mentioned there. In this case it appears that the Samaritan text is correct in reading את פני ארון יהוה instead of אֶל־פְּנֵי הָאָדֹן. This brings the reading into conformity with 34:23. Read the verb: יִרְאֶה.
23:17¹ ^ הָאָדֹן ha’adōn.
23:21† ^But he will bear sins of ignorance. The meaning is that he will not bear, carry, or forgive willful rebellion. He may forgive it after it has been repented. But he will not forgive it in his face.
23:21¹ ^ = reputation, character. The Mĕssenger is the same person as Mĕssiah.
23:28¹ ^Generally the fly and the bee were used of invading armies of foreign nations. See Isa. 7:18. The metaphor is used to indicate that other powers will weaken Yisra’ēl’s enemies.
23:30† ^Even though Israel was about 3 million people, the Canaanites, Hittites, and the Hivvites were among the fastest growing nations descended from Noah. They got started long before Abraham had Isaac in population growth. The middle east was more fertile and wetter during the Middle Bronze age. The Levant coast could have had as many as 20 million people, and probably at least 10 million.
24:4¹ ^ i.e. “at the foot of.” Hebrew idiom.
24:10ᵝ ^ לָטֹהַר latōhar = for purity.
24:11ᵅ ^The waw consecutive here has the force of אָז a̕z = “at that time,” and also in the following two cases. It is not “then next,” as clearly the eating the drinking and the seeing all happened at once.
24:11ᵝ ^Then Mōshēh ascended, and A̕harōn, Nadav̱, and A̕v̱i̱hū’, and the Seventy from the elders of Yisra’ēl. Then they saw the Almĭghty of Yisra’ēl. And under his feet, something like a work of paving of lapis lazuli, and as the substance of the heavens in purity. And against the nobles of the sons of Yisra’ēl he did not send forth his hand. Then, they saw the Almĭghty. Then, they ate. Then, they drank. Ī‘ōv̱ declares, “And after my skin has been made to be struck off this one, then from my flesh I will see Gŏd, whom I, I will see for myself, and my eyes will have
How is it that Gŏd can and cannot be seen? The Almĭghty consists of more than one person, the Făther, the Sŏn, and the Spĭrit, yet as Yăhwēh, “he makes to be” (יַהֲוֶה yahᵃwēh) as one entity. Hebrew pronouns may be used of a unified entity in the singular. Nations and cities are often enough referred to by the pronouns “he” and “I”, yet have more than one person. Hence, “Yăhwēh only” is Almĭghty means that
24:12¹ ^ וְאֶתְּנָה, wɘ e̕ttɘnah, “And let me give,” or “I wish to give,” or “I want to give.” The Hebrew form here is called cohortative, in which the waw is a waw conjunctive, wɘ וְ, and a non apocopated form is used (with III-hēh verbs) and the hēh is added, or the
24:12ᵅ ^Generic article.
24:12ᵝ ^ תּוֹרָה, Tōrah.
24:12ᵞ ^ לְהוֹרֹתָם lɘ hōrōt am. The verb here is ירה, the root of the noun tōrah, and so it helps to translate concordantly, “Instruction...to instruct (them)”
24:14ᵅ ^ בַעַל דְּבָרִים, ba‘al dɘv̱ari̱m. Master/owner of a case/matter/words; A legal defendant or plaintiff. Almost “master of words” (a lawyer).
24:14ᵝ ^A matter, words (דְּבָרִים, dɘv̱ari̱m).
24:16‡ ^ Then the glory of Yăhwēh settled upon mount Si̱nai̱. Then the cloud made to be covered it six days. Then he called unto Mōshēh on the seventh day from the midst of the cloud.‡ This chronological notation demonstrates that the 50th day after the day of the Exodus occurred on the weekly Sabbath, which was the day Yisra’ēl celebrated the feast promised in Exodus 5:1. The feast became known as Shav̱ū‘ōt, or the feast of weeks.
The occurrence of the feast on the weekly Sabbath proves two things. It proves that the days, the weeks, and Sabbaths between Passover and Shav̱ū‘ōt are counted from the 16th day of Nisan. And it also proves that the Sabbath mentioned in Lev. 23:11 and 15 is an Annual Passover Sabbath (rest, cessation).
The Annual Passover Sabbath spanned the night of the 14th and the day of the 15th of Nisan (i.e. sunset on the 14th to sunset on the 15th). The day after this Sabbath was the 16th of Nisan, when Yisra’ēl camped in Sūkkōt (Exo. 12:37). Now Mōshēh had promised that they would go a three day journey to keep a feast in the wilderness (cf. Exodus 3:18; 5:1; 5:3; 8:27). And this feast involved sacrifice. So the day they sacrifice in the wilderness is the feast day. But clearly Mōshēh meant the wilderness of Si̱nai̱, which they entered on the first day of the third month (cf. Exodus 19:1).
Having entered the wilderness of Si̱nai̱ they went the promised three day journey, and then they were told to wash and prepare for two days and to be ready the third day (cf. Exodus 19:10-11). On the third day Yăhwēh would descend on the mountain. The calendar for the third month appears as follows:
Month: III SIVAN, 1632 BC 2508 A.M. Sab. Cyc: 2. Jub. Cyc: 9 Cycle No: 51 Q1: 0.379 A Q2: -1.031 G LG: 63m W: 0.536' AL: 15.4 AV: 12.4 New Moon calculated for longitude: 34.72 and latitude 28.72 Location of calculations: N. of Rephidim Author: Daniel Gregg I II III IV V VI VII ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~██╫██▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ ↑ │1-7-45 │2-7-46 │3-7-47 │4-7-48 │5-7-49 │6-50th │ SIVAN │New Moon │ │ │ │ │Shavuot │ │ │ J1 │ J2 │ J3 │ │ ♦ │ ♦♦ │ │ │ │ │ P1 │ P2 │ R3 │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │ 7 │ 8 │ 9 │ 10 │ 11 │ 12 │ 13 │ │ C1 │ C2 │ C3 │ C4 │ C5 │ C6 │ ♦♦♦ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │ 14 │ 15 │ 16 │ 17 │ 18 │ 19 │ 20 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~█████▀▀▀▀▀▒▒▒▒▒ │ 21 │ 22 │ 23 │ 24 │ 25 │ 26 │ 27 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒~~~~~▒▒▒▒▒ │ 28 │ 29 │ 30 ↑ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
Above is a calendar of the third month. They entered the wilderness on the new moon day (cf. Ex. 19:1). The series J1, J2, J3 are the three day journey in the wilderness that Mōshēh promised. The series P1-P2 are the two days they were told to prepare. R3 is the third day when they were supposed to be ready. The single diamond ♦ is when the Almĭghty spoke the ten commandments out of the cloud and fire to Yisra’ēl. The double diamond ♦♦ is when the they sacrificed, as promised by Mōshēh, and also when the 70 went up on Mt. Si̱nai̱. The series C1 to C6 are the six days that the cloud covered the mountain following the feast. The triple diamond ♦♦♦ is when the Almĭghty spoke to Mōshēh again on the Sabbath.
From J3 to P1 we have inclusive counting. The first of the six cloud covering days C1 was necessarily the first day of the week, a Sunday, as the seventh day was the Sabbath ♦♦♦.
Counting forward, the inventory of days is: Nisan 16 - 30 = 15 days Ziv 1 - 29 = 29 days Sivan 1 - 6 = 6 days Total = 50 days
Note that P1, P3, R3 “the third day” are on the same schedule as Mĕssiah’s death and resurrection. Notice also that the morning of the third day (Exodus 19:16) and the morning of the feast with sacrifices are one day apart (Exo. 24:4-8). And Mōshēh received the instructions on the mountain in the night. Then they had the feast and sealed the covenant after daybreak. It was sealed on the Sabbath day, 50 days after the Exodus. Likewise the renewed covenant is attested by the resurrection of Mĕssiah on the first Sabbath after Passover (cf. Mat. 28:1; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; John 20:1, 19; Acts 20:7; 1Cor. 16:2).
24:18ᵅ ^Hebrew tends to repeat a matter when it wants to say an action was continuing. English sees this as a whole new phase of action disconnected from itself. To remedy this, a words like “further,” or “continued to go” are necessary.
25:5ᵤ ^Unsolved problem: תְּחָשִׁים tɘḥashi̱m. Porpoise, Walrus, sea lion, seal? Unknown animal? The best guess is comparison with an Arabic root.
25:5ᵝ ^ עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים, a̒tsēi̱ shitti̱m, woods of acacias.
25:6ᵅ ^ קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים qɘtōret hassammi̱m = “incense of the fragrances.” סַם sam is a type of incense, described by Holladay as “[for incense of] fragrant perfumes.”
25:7ᵤ ^שֹׁהַם shōham = onyx? Traditional solution.
25:7ᵅ ^מִלֻּאִים millū’i̱m. From the Pual of מלא, “being made to be filled.” The concept is that the stones fill up a space or pattern to make a design, “Stones of being made to be filled;” The idea is not on a type of stone, but what the stone will be used for.
25:7ᵙ ^Based on Arabic cognates the word means “(the) beautiful (thing)” or “(the) most excellent (thing).”
25:8ᵅ ^I see no reason for the subjunctive, “may” here as in the JPS or NAU. The future perfect does not like to be used this way.
25:9¹ ^ תַּבְנִית tav̱ni̱m, building pattern, like an architectural drawing, or draftman’s drawing, based on the verb build: בנה.
25:10ᵅ ^ אֲרוֹן a̕rōn, box, chest.
25:10ᵝ ^The length of the cubit as best we know:
inches (centimeters) Hebrew (short) 17.5 (44.5) Egyptian 17.6 (44.7) Common (short) 18 (45.7) Babylonian (long) 19.8 (50.3)
Hebrew (long) 20.4 (51.8)Egyptian (long) 20.6 (52.3)
In theory, the cubit is the measure from the elbow to the fingertips. A long cubit appears to be defined in terms of a short cubit as “a cubit
25:11ᵅ ^ מִבַּיִת mibbayit = on the house side. The idiom for “inside.”
25:12ᵅ ^Hebrew: it.
25:12ᵝ ^ = other.
25:17ᵅ ^כַפֹּרֶת, a making to be wiped away. The cover on the Ark.
25:19ᵅ ^ מִזֶּה... מִזֶּה. mizzeh...mizzeh: at this...at this. An idiom meaning “at the one...at the other.”
25:20† ^ It appears here that they are to be looking at each other’s feet where they meet the Ark cover, so that their line of vision intersects in the space where Yăhwēh appears.
25:25ᵅ ^ מִסְגֶּרֶת, misgeret = something making to be shut (in). From the root סגר, to shut. Compare Piel participle: מְסַגֶּֽרֶת.
25:26ᵅ ^ רַגְלָיו raglai̱w = “its legs.” The Hebrew word for feet also means legs, and is illustrated in this case. The rings are to be at the top end of the legs (cf. vs 27), which in English is not thought of as the feet. The JPS and NAU must be judged faulty or misleading at this point.
25:27ᵅ ^ לְעֻמַּת, = “at being with of.”
25:27ᵝ ^ לְבָתִּים lɘv̱atti̱m = for houses.
25:31ᵞ ^קָנָהּ qanah, = stalk or reed, a stalk or reed with a hollow up the center. The qanah was a tubular, or pipelike structure used for support.
25:31ᵝ ^כַּפְתּוֹרִים kaphtōri̱m. The ornamental knobs found at the top of pillars, or at intervals going up a pillar.
25:31¹ ^This indicates that the central stalk, the base, and it’s four capitals with flowers atop, were formed from one piece.
25:32ᵅ ^“Going out” indicates that the side stalks (tubes) entered into the central stalk through cut holes. The side stalks were formed separately.
25:33ᵝ ^Each cup is formed from a capital with a flower on top. Mostly likely they were equidistant along the side branch, the third cup at the top of the stalk. (Source: The Menorah, the Ancient Seven-armed Candelabrum: Origin, Form, and Significance, Rāḥēl Ḥa̱klîlî).
25:33ᵅ ^ הָאֶחָד... הָאֶחָד ha e̕ḥad...ha e̕ḥad. And idiom meaning, “the one...the other,” only in this case, the sense has to be, “the one...the next”
25:34ᵅ ^The menōrah (lampstand) is only the central stand, not including the side branches.
25:36ᵅ ^Each side stalk was to be formed from one piece.
25:37ᵅ ^The lamps were made separately and were mounted above the top cups, i.e. capital and flower.
25:38ᵅ ^A tool to make the light go out by covering it. Like an upside down cup with a handle.
25:38ᵝ ^A pan for holding the coals from which the lights could be relighted.
25:39ᵅ ^Read: יֵעָשֶׂה, yē‘aseh, Niphal, 3ms. The reason for the masculine gender is that all the parts are to be made from the talent.
26:1ᵅ ^מִשׁכָּן mishkan.
26:1ᵝ ^These curtains formed the innermost walls and roof of the dwelling (mishkan). They were visible as the roof and walls (through the frames) to any priest standing inside. In the holy place, they were the south wall, the roof, and the north wall. In the most holy place, they were the south wall, the roof, the north wall, and the west wall. They were draped so that they hung down as walls outside the frames, but not all the way to the ground. The bottom edge stood one cubit above the ground level, except on the west wall, where it came all the way to the ground. The the roof of this innermost curtain would have curved down in spanning the distance between the frame supports on the sides.
26:2ᵅ ^Generic article. 28 Cubits.
26:2ᵝ ^ אַחַת, one, the same.
26:3ᵅ ^ אשָּׁה i̱̕shah = each, 3fs.
26:3† ^Each curtain was 28x4 cubits. Five were joined by sewing at the long edges to make one large piece 28x20 cubits. Five others were joined at the long edges to make a second large piece 28x20 cubits.
26:4ᵅ ^Idiom for the “edge” of something. The loops were made on the long edge of the first curtain of the first large piece (28x20 cubits), and also on the edge of the border most curtain of the second large piece (28x20 cubits).
26:4ᵟ ^Two sets of five curtains were sown together. The first curtain of the first set is the joining curtain. The last curtain of the second set is called the border most, and is the joining curtain of that large piece. The loops /..../ join /:::::/ to make the whole mishkan cover.
first set second set 28x20 cubits 28x20 cubits ............ (50 loops) ████████████ 1st ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 1 ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 2 ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 2 ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 3 ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 3 ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 4 ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 4 ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 5 ████████████ 5 (border most) ............ (50 loops) 28x40 cubits ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 1-set 2 ▲ ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 2-set 2 (Over Holy of Holies) West ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 3-set 2 ◄South-North► ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 4-set 2 East ████████████ 5 (border most)-set 2 ▼ :::::::::::: 50 loops joined to 50 loops with clasps ████████████ 1st-set 1 ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 2-set 1 ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 3-set 1 (Over Holy Place) ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 4-set 1 ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓ 5-set 1
The spaces between the curtains are exaggerated so that you can see the components. The loops may be designed so as to leave no gap when the two grand curtains are joined.
26:4ᵞ ^Compare חֹבָרֶת ḥi̱v̱aret to חוֹבֶֽרֶת ḥōveret, Qal participle. The two large pieces were to be joined together along the 28 cubit edge of one, and the 28 cubit edge of the other, making the complete dwelling cover of 28x40 cubits. Where they are joined is called the “joining place.” The cubit is 20.4 inches, so the size is 47' x 68'.
26:4ᵨ ^ הַקִּיצוֹנָה haqqi̱tsōnah. The word refers to the border most curtain of the second set, i.e. #5 in the assembly sequence. In Exodus 36:11 both the first curtain of the first set and the last curtain of the second set are called “the border most.” The base word is קֵץ qēts or קִיץ qi̱ts, with an Aramaic intensive ending, וֹן, ōn, “border most,” and then declined as a feminine adjective with the addition of ה ָ ah. As is usual with קֵץ, the word can refer to the near boundary or the far boundary of anything.
26:4ᵝ ^מַחְבֶּרֶת maḥɘbberet. Compare: מְחַבֶּֽרֶת, mɘḥabberet. Piel participle.
26:5ᵅ ^The first curtain in the first large piece (28x20 cubits), made up of 5 curtains (28x4 cubits) each.
26:5ᵝ ^The last curtain of the second large piece is meant, and the border of it.
26:5ᵞ ^The sister loops are at the edge of the first large piece. These are matched with the loops of the second large piece, one for one.
26:6ᵅ ^ אֶחָד e̕ ḥad. Compare Gen. 2:24.
26:7ᵅ ^“Many of the goats of the East have black hair, but there are some species having fine white silky hair, like that of the Angora goat, and not a few writers are of the opinion that it was hair of this goat or of one resembling it that was woven for the goat-hair curtains” (pg. 60, The Tabernacle, William Brown, 1899).
26:8¹ ^Generic article. The 30 cubit length is oriented from north to south. The 4 cubit width is oriented east to west.
26:8† ^This means that the goat hair curtain would cover the Mishkan curtain completely, and hang all the way to the ground. From within the dwelling, the goats hair curtain would be visible through the frames at the bottom cubit of the south and north walls in the holy place, and also the south and north walls of the most holy place.
26:9ᵅ ^ לְבָד lɘv̱ad. By themselves. Alone as a unit apart from the others, and thus forming two larger units, the first 30x20 cubits and the second 30x24 cubits.
26:9ᵝ ^The sixth curtain was 30x4 cubits, and would entirely hang down the front leaving 6 cubits of space to the ground. thus it would have to be folded back to prevent it from hanging down.
26:10† ^In the same fashion is the mishkan cover, see 26:4ᵟ.
26:11ᵨ ^The two joined together is called a tent: אֹהֶל, ō̕ hel.
26:12ᵨ ^The tent is now also called a “tent curtain” to further name the whole, and distinguish it from the eleven individual curtains.
26:12† ^It is somewhat obscure as to the half of which curtain is meant, an individual curtain (30x4 cubits), the whole tent curtain (30x44), or one of the half units (30x20 and 30x24), which had not yet been specifically called a curtain, though they surely are. The 30x20 cubit piece is meant, as determined by the process of elimination and the overall design of the structure. Half of the first large piece, now called a curtain itself, made from joining the 5 smaller curtains (30x4 cubits each), totaling 30x20 cubits. Half of the east-west length is 10 cubits, and this is equal to the height of the back of the dwelling, i.e. the west wall. This 10 cubit left over was not needed for the roof, and so it hung down the back all the way to the ground.
26:13ᵅ ^מִזֶּה…מִזֶּה mizzeh…mizzeh, idiom.
26:13ᵝ ^The smaller curtains that make up each of the two large curtains are 30x4 cubits, with the length (long dimension) running from north to south. The large curtains are 30x20 and 30x24 cubits respectively, and so their lengths still run from north to south.
The goat skin curtain overhangs one cubit on each side of the dwelling, since the dwelling curtain is 28 cubits from north to south, and the goat curtain exceeds it by two cubits. The goat curtain will be exposed on the north and south sides, viewed from the inside of the tabernacle, for one cubit off the ground. The white color of an Angora goat curtain would make a beautiful contrast with the blue, purple, and red finely interwoven linen making up the mishkan.
26:14¹ ^ מִלְמָעְלָה mi l ma̒l ah, out at above toward: מ, ל, מעל, ה.
26:15ᵅ ^Generic article.
26:15ᵝ ^Each frame was formed from two uprights and several cross pieces of acacia wood. Together they formed a rib like lattice structure or framework.
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26:17ᵅ ^Hebrew idiom: יָדוֹת, yadōt, hands. The two hands were projections (pins or pegs) at the bottom of each frame for sliding into the sockets in the silver bases.
26:17ᵝ ^ The pins (hands) are to join the frame to its two bases. Each base is a talent of silver (about 75 pounds). So the frames will not topple.
26:22ᵅ ^Six frames of 1.5 cubits, equaling 9 cubits. The frames themselves must have been 0.5 cubit deep to make up the 10 cubit north to south dimension of the dwelling. This means that the timbers used to make the frames were 10 cubits: 17' x 3" x 10" (using the long cubit), or 14.5' x 3" x 7.3" (using the short cubit).
26:23ᵅ ^The special frames were coupled at the NW and SW corners at the top rings of the corner. They sloped downward, at an angle to the ground at a heading of 315 degrees on the NW corner, and 225 degrees on the SW corner, west being 270 degrees. These frames provided extra support at the corners to keep the walls from racking when a wind came up.
26:24ᵝ ^מִלְּמַטָּה millɘmattah. mi lɘ matt ah. First compare the Hiphil participle of the root verb, נטה, which is מַטֶּה, “making stretch, making incline.” The ending appears to be converted to a directive hēh on the end, and has two prepositions, therefore, “from to making stretched toward.” The exact form is used only six times, 1. here, 2. of the net stretching down the side of the altar (Exo. 27:5), 3. On this same item (Exo. 28:27), 4. Again on the same item (Exo. 36:29), 5. Again for the altar grating (38:4), 6. with the ē̕phōd.(Exo. 39:20).
26:26ᵅ ^ צֶלַע tsela̒, “rib.” The frames did have a rib like structure when they were all stood up without the coverings.
26:27ᵅ ^ לַיַּרְכָתַיִם יָמָּה. Repoint text as: לירכת ים יָמָּה, “for the flank of the sea, seaward.” Compare Exodus 26:18.
26:28ᵅ ^Generic article.
26:33ᵅ ^Generic article.
26:34ᵅ ^ כַּפֹּרֶת kappōret. The golden cover of the ark was named after its proximitary to what Gŏd does at that place, לְכַפֵּר leḳaphēr, to make to be kōpher. In English this may be glossed, as “the place where a making to be cleared off, wiped off, wiped out, purged, cleansed” is effected.
26:34ᵝ ^Translators have rendered “most holy place,” or “Holy of holies.” But there is a third rendering which is perhaps a bit more accurate: holiest holy-place. The noun הַקֳּדָשִׁים functions as an attributive adjective substantive, “the holiest [place].” When the intensive plural is properly recognized as intensive and not plural in number, then it is possible to realize the phrase as: “[the] holy [place] of the holiest [place].” As is often done, we may turn the construct around into an adjective phrase: “the holiest holy place.”
26:36ᵅ ^ תְּכֵלֶת, tɘḳēlet. “Dyes used by ancient peoples were rather impure and that the uncertainty of the results of dyeing in those days made it almost impossible for them to reproduce colors with any degree of precision. Words like tɘḳēlet and a̕rgaman (and their Akkadian cognates), therefore, denoted colors that spanned the spectrum from brilliant red through deep purple, and "blue" is simply a conventional translation of tɘḳēlet. It may well be that the ancients were more interested in richness, darkness, brilliance, and the like than in recision of tint or hue. At any rate the best and costliest ancient dyes were the blues and violets and purples that were made from the secretions of various mollusks (primarily
Tyrian purple (a̕ rgaman): ████████ (hex code #66023C). tɘḳēlet: ████████ (hex code #2A52BE). Tōla‘at Shani̱: ████████ (hex code #AF002A).
27:9ᵅ ^Generic article.
27:18ᵅ ^Generic article.
27:18ᵝ ^Giving the width of the east and west sides.
28:4ᵅ ^ חֹשֶׁן ḥōshen. Instead of “breast plate,” I use “beautiful breast piece.” The word beautiful relates to the literal meaning of the word, and the words breast piece relate to its function, which is to serve as a decorative piece over the breast.
28:5ᵅ ^Generic article.
28:7ᵅ ^i.e. the ē̕phōd, the girdle vest.
28:7¹ ^The two edges are two places on the back piece where the shoulder pieces attach. The Hebrew word translated “edges” here means “extreme points,” i.e. two points at the top of the back piece where the shoulder pieces will be stitched on.
28:7ᵝ ^The girdle belt will join and unjoin for putting on and taking off. This is probably what the phrase means. There will also be chains from the shoulder pieces to the beautiful breast piece. The girdle belt will join the girdle vest at the back, being stitched together. The shoulder pieces will join the at the back also, being stitched together. The whole ornamental garment is the “girdle vest.” Garments in those days were not normally made as patterned pieces joined by sewing. This one was. In those days most garments were of one piece and were fitted on the body by wrapping.
28:8ᵅ ^i.e. the ē̕phōd, the girdle vest.
28:10ᵅ ^Definite article.
28:17† ^The identification of these stones, and exactly what the Hebrew behind them means is uncertain due to both the imprecise nature of ancient terminology, and the changing nature of ancient terms. The individual names may be looked up in the EHSV Lexicon.
28:25ᵅ ^Waw explicativum.
28:28ᵅ ^Read: וַיִּרְכְּסוּ, wayyirkɘsū.
28:28ᵝ ^Read: מִטַּבְּעֹתָו, mittabbɘ‘ōtaw. aw → ō. The MT correction is unnecessary.
28:31ᵅ ^The over vestment goes over the long robe but under the girdle vest, i.e. the ē̕phōd. The construct relation here lacks the clarity supplied elsewhere.
28:32ᵅ ^construct: at.
28:32ᵝ ^ תַחְרָא taḥra’. An unknown type of garment with a sewn seam at the head opening which is supposed to serve as an example for the priestly garment.
28:38ᵅ ^ עֲוֹן a̒υōn. A Hebrew idiom meaning “responsibility” and that the “punishment” or “guilt” and “blame” arising from not carrying out the responsibility will fall on him and his sons. The strength of the idiom is similar to the use of the word “hate” to mean “love less.” Whenever someone is “carrying iniquity” for something, they are “taking responsibility.” The idiom more strongly conveys the idea of responsibility by indicating the consequences of failure.
28:38ᵝ ^Not the gifts, but the people, as the gifts are feminine in gender, and the pronoun is masculine plural. Acceptance of the gift also means acceptance of the person who brought it.
29:1ᵅ ^ דָּבָר dav̱ar, a procedure.
29:5ᵅ ^The construct here is not very clear, due to the name “over vestment”, which goes over the long robe, but under the girdle vest.
29:24† ^The palms are the hands in English. The Hebrew word for hands also includes the forearm, and therefore, the instruction is to lay them on the palms. In this way the hand (power) of each priest is filled to do his duties.
29:30ᵅ ^or in his place after he dies.
29:38‡ ^Read Piel: תְּעַשֶּׂה.
29:38† ^Read dual: כְּבָשַׂיִם kɘv̱asayim.
29:41¹ ^The pronoun refers to the tribute offering for the first lamb.
29:41² ^The pronoun refers to the tribute offering with the second lamb.
30:1¹ ^Compare Piel: מְקַטֵּר, making to be smoked.
30:7† ^Making good refers to putting the lamps out from the night before and preparing them for relighting after noon.
30:7¹ ^The pronoun refers to “incense smoke.”
30:12¹ ^As in referring to so many head of cattle.
30:17† ^Hebrew repeats a matter to express its continuance, but English requires a word to that effect.
30:18ᵅ ^Read: לְרָחֳצָהֻ, suffix 3ms. הֻ = oneself.
30:29† ^Read Pual: יְקֻדַּשׁ.
30:32† ^Read with the Samaritan Text: יוּסַךְ.
30:34† ^Unknown fragrance. Translation from LXX: στακτήν.
30:34‡ ^Translation from LXX: ὄνυχα.
30:34¹ ^Read: וְחֶלְבְּנַת סַמִּים?
31:17† ^or “breathed.” Does the Almĭghty need rest? Or not? It depends. If he limits himself to a mode of existence requiring him to regenerate his powers, then he will need rest to do so. But he did not have to limit himself this way. It was purely voluntary on his part. What this text says, is that he did so limit himself so as to have to recover his energies. This scripture, therefore, is a gigantic theological statement. Yăhwēh submits himself to the limits of his own creation and interacts with it.
32:7† ^Read Pual: שֻׁחַת.
32:8¹ ^Read: וְ wɘ.
32:10¹ ^The paragogic heh is simply a cohortative like ending here, allowing contingency to the imperative and turning it into a pleading.
32:23¹ ^Read וְיֹאמרוּ.
32:31¹ ^Read וְיַעֲשׂוּ.
33:19† ^He will summon his glory and his reputation to manifest.
34:5ᵅ ^The pronoun refers to Yăhwēh. Yăhwēh came down from the cloud and took up his normal unglorified, or minimally glorified physical appearance. He was next to Mōshēh in this state before he summoned his full glory. This is the full glory he was accustomed to in the heavens, the glory that would slay a man if viewed face on. The fact that Yăhwēh stood next to Mōshēh (and was visible face to face) before manifesting his glory, shows that this was the Sŏn of the Almĭghty, the Mĕssiah Yĕshūa̒, before he became the Mĕssiah. The person here is not the Făther, who remains unseen (cf. John 1:18).
34:5ᵝ ^The second pronoun refers to Mōshēh who was already standing on the rock as ordered.
34:5† ^He summons his glory reflecting his reputation to manifest. The glory is more than just a physical brightness. It is a spiritually piercing brightness of righteousness and truth that will pierce the soul through.
34:19† ^Read. הַזָּכָר. See BDB. BHS.
34:22ᵅ ^A generic article, where one year represents all years. The cycle of feasts will begin anew with each year, and will run the course of a year. The translation
34:23ᵝ ^Read יִרְאֶה. The verb cannot be passive since the direct object follows as אֶת־פְּנֵי הָאָדֹן. See 23:15†. The statement must in large part be considered a promise for the age to come. If however Yisra’ēl had fully obeyed Yăhwēh, they would have seen his face, as his face was seen on Mt. Sinai at the feast of Shav̱ū‘ōt. See also Judges 2:4.
34:24‡ ^Read: לִרְאוֹת. The MT text attempts to point this infinitive construct as a Niphal, which is impossible, as it requires an absent consonantal heh, and if authentic should be: לְהֵרָאוֹת. And the Niphal makes nonesense out of the following object phrase: אֶת־פְּנֵי. See 23:15†. The promise of seeing Yăhwēh’s face is now evidently reserved for the Messianic Age, the Millennial kingdom, when Mĕssiah Yĕshūa̒ will appear at the feasts and all the pilgrims will behold his face. The promises here parallel those in Deut. 30. The text has now hammered home the point of seeing the face of Yăhwēh in 34:20, 34:23, and now 34:24. Three times.