Translation by Daniel Gregg

Introduction to Hebrews

Before the fourth century this book was, as a general rule, rejected in the west, and in the main only accepted by the Church of Alexandria. I agree with the western opinion. The factual and theological errors of this book are explained in the online commentary edition. Only one other matter needs here be mentioned, and that is the author’s misquotation of Psa. 40, Jer. 31, and a few other passages. In such cases the quotes have been corrected by conforming them to the original Hebrew sources, or by leaving out the quote marks. This way whatever is in quotes may be expected to be accurate as is the norm. Nothing else should be taken for granted.

Chapter 1

1 In many ways, and in many man­ners, the Almighty spoke of old, to the fathers, in the prophets, about these last days. He spoke to us by a son, whom he designates heir of all things, through whom also he made the ages.
3 Who being the radiance of his glory, and the exact representation of his nature, and upholding all things by the word of his power, having made cleansing of sin, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, as one who is so much better than the messengers, as he has inherited a more excellent Name than they. For to which of the messengers did he at some time say, “You are my Sŏn, today I have brought you forth.” And again, “I will be a Fă­ther to him and he will be a Sŏn to me?”
6 And again, whenever he may bring the firstborn into the inhabited earth, he would say, “And let all the messengers of the Al­mĭgh­ty wor­ship him.” And about the messengers he would say, “Who makes his messengers spirits, and his mini­sters a flame of fire.”
8 But to the son, “Your throne, Al­mĭgh­ty, is to time immemorial and onward, and the righteous scepter is the scepter of his king­dom. You have loved justice and hated lawlessness. Therefore the Al­mĭgh­ty, your Al­mĭgh­ty, hath anointed you with the oil of glad­ness above your companions.”
10 10 And, “You, Yăhwēh, in the beginning did lay the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works of your hands. 11 They will perish, but you remain. And they all will become old as a garment. 12 And as a mantle you will roll them up. As a garment they will also be changed. But you are the same, and your years will not come to an end.” 13 But to which of the messengers has he ever said, “Remain sitting at my right hand, while I make thine enemies a footstool for your feet?” 14 Are they not all ministering spirits, sent out to render service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation?

Chapter 2

1 For this reason we must pay much closer attention to what we have heard, lest we drift away, because if the word spoken through mes­sen­gers was confirmed, and every trans­gression and disobedience re­ceived a just recompense, how will we escape neglecting such great sal­vation which at the beginning was received through the Lord, being confirmed to us by those hearing him,  bearing witness for the Almighty, both in signs and wonders and in many miracles and in distribution of the Holy Spir­it according to his own will.
5 Because he did not subject to messengers the inhabited world to come, concerning which we are speaking. But one has testified somewhere, saying, “What is man, that you re­mem­ber him? Or the Sŏn of man, that you are concerned about him? You have made him for a little while lower than the mes­sen­gers. You have crowned him with glory and honor, and have appointed him over the works of your hands. You have put all things in subjection under his feet,” because in subjecting all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we do not yet see all things subjected to him.
9 But we do see Yeshua a little lower than the messengers crowned with glory and honor. Such is how by the loving-kindness of the Almighty he might taste death for everyone.
10 10 Because it was fitting for him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect, the leader of their salvation through sufferings, 11 because both the sanctifier and those being sanctified are all from one, for which reason he is not ashamed to call them brethren, 12 say­ing, “I will proclaim your name to my brothers. In the midst of the con­gregation I will sing your praise.” 13 And again, “I will put my trust in him.” And again, “Behold, I and the children whom Yăhwēh has given me.” 14 Since then the children share in flesh and blood, he himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death he might render power­less him who had the power of death, that is, the Accuser, 15 and might deliver those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives. 16 Because assuredly he does not give help to messengers, but he takes hold of the seed of ’Av̱raham. 17 Therefore, he had to be likened to his brethren in all things, that he might become a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to the Almighty, to expiate, the sins of the people. 18 Because in that he suffered himself, as tested, he is able to help those being tested.

Chapter 3

1 Therefore, holy brethren, par­takers of a heavenly calling, look to Yeshua, the Emissary and High Priest of our confession. He was faithful to him who appointed him, as also “Mōshēh was in all His house,” because he has been counted worthy of more glory than Mōshēh, by just so much as the builder of the house has more honor than the house. Because every house is built by someone, but the builder of all things is the Almighty. Now Mōshēh was faith­ful in all His house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken later, but Messiah is faithful as a Son over His house whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the boast of our hope firm until the end.
7 Therefore, just as the Holy Spir­it says, “Today if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts as when they provoked me, as in the day of trial in the wilderness, where your fathers tried me by testing me, and saw my works for forty years. 10 There­fore I was angry with this gen­eration, and said, ‘They always go astray in their heart. And they did not know my ways’, 11 As I swore in my wrath, ‘They will not enter my rest.’”
12 12 Take care, brethren, lest there should be in any one of you an evil, distrusting heart, in falling away from the living Al­migh­ty. 13 But encourage one another day after day, as long as it is still called “Today,” lest any one of you be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin, 14 because we have become partakers of Messiah, if we hold fast the beginning of confidence firm until the end. 15 While it is said, “Today if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts, as when they provoked me.” 16 Because certain ones, hearing, bitterly provoked! But not all those who came out of Egypt through Mōshēh. 17 And with whom was he angry for forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose bodies fell in the wilderness? 18 And to whom did he swear that they should not enter his rest, but to those who were disobedient? 19 And so we see that they were not able to enter because of unfaithfulness.

Chapter 4

1 Therefore, let us fear lest, while a promise remains of entering his rest, any one of you should seem to have come short of it, because indeed we have had good news announced to us, just as they also, but the word they heard did not profit them, because it was not united with trust in those who heard, because as ones who trust, we do enter that rest, just as he has said, “As I swore in my wrath, they will not enter my rest,” and yet his works have existed from the beginning of the world. Because he said about that place concerning the seventh day, “And the Al­mĭgh­ty res­ted on the seventh day from all his works,” and again in this passage, “They will not enter my rest.”
6 When therefore it is remaining for some to enter it. And those who formerly had good news preached to them failed to enter because of disobedience. He again fixes a certain day today, saying through Daυi̱d after so long a time just as has been said before, “Today if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts.” For if Yehōshū‘a had given them rest, he would not have spoken of another rest after those days. There remains therefore a Sabbath rest for the people of the Al­migh­ty, 10 because the one who enters his rest himself also rests from his works, just as, the Al­migh­ty from his own.
11 11 Let us hurry then to enter that rest, lest anyone should fall into the same example of disobedience, 12 because the word of the Al­migh­ty is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart. 13 And there is no creature hidden from his sight, but all things are open and laid bare to the eyes of him with whom we have to do.
14 14 Since then we have a great High Priest who has passed through the heavens, Yeshua the Al­migh­ty Son, let us hold fast our confession, 15 because we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who is tested in every way, in every manner, without sin. 16 We will therefore draw near with confidence to the throne of kind­ness, wherein we will receive mercy and may find loving kindness for timely help.

Chapter 5

1 Because every high priest being taken from among men is appointed on behalf of men in things pertaining to the Al­migh­ty, in order to offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins, he can deal gently with the ignorant and misguided, since he himself also is beset with weakness, and because of it he is obligated to offer sacrifices for sins, as for the people, so also for himself. And no one receives the honor to himself, unless he is called by the Al­migh­ty, even as ’Aharōn was. Likewise even the Mes­si­ah did not glorify himself so as to become a High Priest, but he who said to him, “You are my Sŏn, today I have brought you forth,” just as he says also in another passage, “you are a minister unto the age in the fashion of Malki̱tsedeq.”
7 In the days of his flesh, he offered up both prayers and supplications with loud crying and tears to the One able to save him from death, even as one who is heard because of piety. Although he was the Son, he learned submission from the things which he suffered. And as one who is complete, he becomes to all those who submit to him a cause of everlasting salvation, 10 being addressed by the Al­migh­ty as a high “minister in the fashion of Malki̱tsedeq.” 11 Con­cerning him we have much to say, and it is hard to explain, since you have become dull of hearing, 12 because though by this time you ought to be teachers, you have need again for someone to teach you the elementary principles of the sayings of the Al­migh­ty, and you have come to need milk and not solid food. 13 Because everyone partaking of milk only, is inexperienced in the word of right­eousness, because he is an infant. 14 But solid food is for the perfect, who because of practice have their senses trained to discern good and evil.

Chapter 6

1 Therefore leaving the ele­men­tary teaching about the Mes­si­ah, let us press on to perfection, not laying again a foundation of repen­tance from dead works and of trust toward the Al­migh­ty, of instruction about washings, and laying on of hands, and the resurrection of the dead, and everlasting judgment. And this we will do, if the Al­migh­ty permits.
4 Because in the case of those who have once been enlightened and have tasted of the heavenly gift and have been made partakers of the Holy Spir­it, and have tasted the good word of the Al­migh­ty and the powers of the age to come, and then have fallen away, it is impossible to renew them again to repentance, since they again crucify to themselves the Al­migh­ty Son, and put him to open shame. Because ground that drinks the rain which often falls upon it and brings forth vegetation useful to those for whose sake it is also tilled, receives a blessing from the Al­migh­ty, but if it yields thorns and thistles, it is worthless and close to being cursed, and it ends up being burned.
9 But, beloved, we are con­vinced of better things concerning you, and things that accompany salvation, though we are speaking in this way. 10 Because the Al­migh­ty is not unjust so as to forget your work and the love which you have shown toward his name, in having ministered and in still ministering to the holy ones. 11 And we desire that each one of you show the same diligence so as to realize the full assurance of hope until the end, 12 that you may not be sluggish, but imitators of those who through confidence and patience inherit the promises.
13 13 Because when the Al­migh­ty made the promise to ’Av̱raham, since he could swear by no one greater, he swore by himself, 14 saying, “I will surely bless you, and I will surely multiply you.” 15 And thus, having patiently waited, he obtained the promise, 16 because men swear by one greater than themselves, and with them an oath given as confirmation is an end of every dispute. 17 In the same way the Al­migh­ty, desiring even more to show to the heirs of the promise the unchangeableness of his purpose, interposed with an oath, 18 in order that by two unchangeable things, in which it is impossible for the Al­migh­ty to lie, we may have strong encouragement, we who have fled for refuge in laying hold of the Hope set before us. 19 This Hope we have as an anchor of the soul, a Hope both sure and steadfast and one which enters within the veil, 20 where Yeshua has entered as a fore­runner for us, having become a high “minister unto the age in the fashion of Malki̱tsedeq.”

Chapter 7

1 Because this Malki̱tsedeq, king of Shalēm, priest of the God Most High, who met ’Av̱raham as he was returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him, to whom also ’Av̱raham appor­tioned a tenth part of all the spoils, was first of all, by the translation of his name, “king of righteousness”, and then also king of Shalēm, which is king of shalōm, without patriarchy, without matriarchy, without pedi­gree, having neither beginning of days nor a life end, but being likened to the Al­migh­ty Son, he abides a priest perpetually.
4 Now observe how great this man was to whom ’Av̱raham, the patriarch, gave a tenth of the choicest spoils. And those indeed of the sons of Lēυi̱ who receive the priest’s office have commandment in the Law to collect a tenth from the people, that is, from their brethren, although these are descended from ’Av̱raham. But the one whose genealogy is not traced from them collected a tenth from ’Av̱raham, and blessed the one who had the promises.
7 But without any dispute the lesser is blessed by the greater. But in hither case mortal men receive tithes, and in thither case one receives them, of whom it is witnessed that he lives on. And, in a word, through ’Av̱raham even Lēυi̱, who received tithes, paid tithes, 10 because he was still in the loins of his father when Malki̱tsedeq met him.
11 11 Now if perfection was through the Levitical priesthood because by it the people received instruction, what further need was there for another “minister to arise in the fashion of Malki̱tsedeq”, and not be designated according to the order of ’Aharōn? 12 Because when the priesthood is changed, of necessity there takes place a change of law also.
13 13 Because the one concerning whom these things are spoken belongs to another tribe, from which no one has officiated at the altar. 14 Because it is evident that our Lord was descended from Yehūdah, a tribe with reference to which Mōshēh spoke nothing concerning priests. 15 And this is clearer still, if another priest arises, according to the likeness of Malki̱tsedeq, 16 who has become a priest not according to a law of fleshly commandment, but according to the power of an indestructible life.
17 17 Because it is witnessed of him, “You are a minister unto the age in the fashion of Malki̱tsedeq.” 18 Because, on the one hand, there is a setting aside of a former commandment because of its weakness and uselessness, 19 because the Law made nothing perfect, and on the other hand there is a bringing in of a better hope, through which we draw near to the Al­migh­ty, 20 and inasmuch as it was not without an oath.
21 21 Because they indeed became priests without an oath, but he with an oath through the One who said to him, “Yăhwēh has sworn and will not change his mind, ‘You are a minister unto the age.’”
22 22 And so much the more also Ye­shua has become the guarantee of a better covenant. 23 And the former priests, on the one hand, existed in greater numbers, because they were prevented by death from continuing, 24 but he, on the other hand, because he abides to the time immemorial, holds his priesthood per­manently.
25 25 Hence, also, he is able to save completely those who draw near to the Al­migh­ty through him, since he always lives to make intercession for them.
26 26 For it was fitting that we should have such a High priest, holy, innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners and exalted above the heavens, 27 who does not need, daily, like those high priests, to offer up sacrifices, first for his own sins, and then for the sins of the people, because this he did once for all when he offered up himself.
28 28 Because the Law appoints men as high priests who are weak, but the saying of the oath, which came after the Law, appoints a Son, made perfect to the time immemorial.

Chapter 8

1 Now the main point in what has been said is this. We have such a High priest who has taken his seat at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens, a servant in the sanctuary, and in the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, not man.
3 Because every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices. Hence it is necessary that this high priest also have something to offer. Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, since there are those who offer the gifts according to the Law, which serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, just as Mōshēh was warned, when he was about to erect the tabernacle, because, “See,” he says, “that you make all things according to their pattern which was shown you on the mountain.”
6 But now he has obtained a different ministry, by as much as he is also the mediator of a better will, which has been legislated on better promises.
7 Because if that first testament was fault­less, there would have been no occa­sion sought for a second, because find­ing fault with them, he says, “Be­hold, the days are coming, says Yăhwēh, when I will effect a renewed covenant with the house of Yisra’ēl and with the house of Yehūdah, not according to the covenant when I covenanted with their fathers, in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, when they did not continue in my covenant, and I was Master against them, says Yăhwēh, 10 because this is the covenant which I covenant with the house of Yisra’ēl after those days, says Yăhwēh. I will put my laws into their minds, and I will write them upon their hearts. And I will be their Al­mĭgh­ty, and they will be my people. 11 And they will not teach everyone his fellow citizen, and everyone his bro­ther, saying, ‘Know Yăhwēh,’ because all will know me, from the least to the greatest of them, 12 because I will forgive their iniquities, and I will re­mem­ber their sins no more.”
13 13 When he said, a “renewed covenant” he has made the first old. But what­ever is becoming old also grow­ing aged is nearer disap­pear­ance.

Chapter 9

1 Now even the first testament had regulations of divine wor­ship and the earthly sanctuary, because there was a tabernacle prepared, the outer one, in which was the menorah and the table and the sacred bread. This is called the holy place. And behind the second veil, there was a tabernacle which is called the Holy of Holies, having a golden altar of incense, and the ark of the covenant covered on all sides with gold, in which was a golden jar holding the manna, and Aaron’s rod which bud­ded, and the tables of the cove­nant.  And above it were the cherūv̱i̱m of glory over­shadow­ing the mercy seat, but of these things we cannot now speak in detail.
6 Now when these things have been thus prepared, the priests are continually entering the outer taber­nacle, performing the divine worship, but into the second only the high priest enters, once a year, not without taking blood, which he brings for him­self and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance.
8 This clarifying by the Holy Spir­it indicates that the way into the holiest place was not yet revealed, while the first tabernacle was still standing, which is a symbol for the present time. Accordingly both gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot make the worshiper perfect in conscience, 10 since they relate only to food and drink and various wash­ings, regulations for the body im­posed until a time of re­for­ma­tion. 11 But when Mes­si­ah ap­peared as a high priest of the good things to come, he entered through the greater and more perfect taber­nacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation, 12 and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through his own blood, he entered the holy place once for all, having ob­tained everlasting redemp­tion.
13 13 Because if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprink­ling those who have been defiled, sanctify for the cleansing of the flesh, 14 how much more will the blood of Mes­si­ah, who through the everlasting Spir­it offered himself without ble­mish to the Al­migh­ty, cleanse your con­science from dead works to serve the living Al­migh­ty?
15 15 And for this reason he is the mediator of a new testament, in order that since a death has taken place for the redemption of the transgressions that were committed under the first testament, those who have been called may re­ceive the promise of the everlasting inheritance. 16 Because where a testament is, there must of necessity be the death of the one who made it, 17 because a testament is valid only when men are dead, because it is never in force while the one who made it lives.
18 18 Therefore even the first testament was not inaugurated without blood, 19 because when every commandment was spoken by Mōshēh to all the people according to the Law, he took the blood of the calves and the goats, with water and scarlet wool and hys­sop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 20 saying, “This is the blood of the covenant which the Al­mĭgh­ty commands you.”
21 21 And in the same way he sprinkled both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry with the blood. 22 And according to the Law, almost, all things are cleansed with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 23 There­fore it was necessary for the copies of the things in the heavens to be cleansed with these, but the hea­ven­ly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.
24 24 Because Mes­si­ah did not enter a holy place made with hands, a copy of the true one, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of the Al­migh­ty for us, 25 nor was it that he should offer himself often, as the high priest enters the holy place year by year with blood not his own. 26 Otherwise, he would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world, but now once at the consummation of the ages he has been manifested to abolish sin by the sacrifice of himself. 27 And inas­much as it is appointed for men to die once and after this comes judgment, 28 so Mes­si­ah also, having been of­fered once to “take away the sins of many,” will appear a second time for salvation without reference to sin, to those who eagerly await him.

Chapter 10

1 For the Law, since it has a shadow of the good things to come and not the image of matters, can never by the same sac­rifices year by year, which they offer continually, make perfect those who draw near.
10 Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered, because the worshipers, having once been cleansed, would no longer have had consciousness of sins? But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year by year.
4 Because it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.
5 Therefore, when he comes into the world, he says: “Sacrifice and offering you hast not desired, but my ears you have opened. Whole-ascending sacrifice, and sacrifice for sin you have not asked for. So I said, ‘Behold, I have come. In the roll of the book it is written of me to do your will, O Al­mĭgh­ty your Law is with­in my heart.’”
8 After saying above, “Sac­rifices and offerings and whole ascending sacrifices even for sin you have not desired, nor have you asked for,” which are offered according to the Law, then he said, “Behold, I have come to do your will O Al­mĭgh­ty, your Law is within my heart.”
9b 9b He takes away the first in order to establish the second. 10 By this will we have been sanctified through the sacrifice of the body of Ye­shua the Mes­si­ah once for all. 11 And, on the one hand every priest stands, daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins, 12 but on the other hand he, having offered one sacrifice for sins to be the continual, sat down at the right hand of the Al­mĭgh­ty, 13 henceforth waiting while his enemies should be made a footstool for his feet.
14 14 Because by one offering he has perfected as the continual those who are sanctified. 15 And the Holy Spir­it also bears witness to us, because after saying, 16 “This is the covenant that I covenant with them after those days, says Yăhwēh. I will put my laws upon their heart, and upon their mind I will write them. 17 and their lawless deeds I will remember no more.”
18 18 Now where there is forgiveness of these things, there is no longer any offering for sin.
19 19 Since therefore, brethren, we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Ye­shua , 20 by a recent and living way which he dedicated for us through the veil, that is, his flesh, 21 and since we have a great priest over the house of the Al­mĭgh­ty,
22 22 let us draw near with a sincere heart in full certainty of confidence, having our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.
23 23 Let us hold fast the con­fes­sion of our hope without wavering, because he who promised is trustworthy, 24 and let us consider how to stimulate one another to love and good deeds, 25 not forsaking our own Arch-synagogue, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more, as you see the day drawing near.
26 26 Because if we go on sinning will­fully after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, 27 but a certain terrifying ex­pectation of judgment, and the fury of a fire which will consume the adversaries.
28 28 Anyone who has set aside the Law of Mōshēh dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 29 How much severer punishment do you think he will deserve who has trampled under foot Al­migh­ty Son, and has regarded as unclean the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has insulted the Spir­it of grace?
30 30 Because we know him who said, “Vengeance is Mine, I will repay.” And again, “Yăhwēh will judge his people.” 31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living Al­migh­ty. 32 But remember the former days, when, after being enlightened, you endured a great conflict of sufferings, 33 partly, by being made a public spectacle through reproaches and tribulations, and partly by becoming sharers with those who were so treated. 34 Because you showed sympathy to the prisoners, and accepted joyfully the seizure of your property, knowing that you have for yourselves a better possession and an abiding one. 35 Therefore, do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward, 36 because you have need of endurance, so that when you have done the will of the Al­migh­ty, you may receive what was promised.
37 37 For yet in a very very little while, the one coming will come, and will not delay. 38 “But the righteous one will live by faithfulness.” And if he shrinks back, my soul has no pleasure in him.
39 39 But we are not of those who shrink back to destruction, but of those who have trust to the pre­serving of the soul.

Chapter 11

1 Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the guarantee of things not seen, because by it the men of old gained approval. By trust we understand that the aeons were prepared by the word of the Al­migh­ty, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible. By trust, Hev̱el offered to the Al­migh­ty a better sacrifice than Qayin, through which he obtained the test­imony that he was righteous, the Al­migh­ty testifying about his gifts, and through it, though he is dead, he still speaks.
5 By trust Ḥanōḳ was taken up so that he should not see death. And he was not found because the Al­migh­ty took him up, because he obtained the witness that before his being taken up he was pleasing to the Al­migh­ty. And without trust it is impossible to please him, because it is necessary to have trust to make the approach to the Al­migh­ty, that he is, and that he is a rewarder of those who seek him. By trust Nōâḥ, being warned by the Al­migh­ty about things not yet seen, in reverence prepared an ark for the salvation of his household, by which he con­demned the world, and became an heir of the righteousness which is according to trust.
8 By trust A̕v̱ra­ham, when he was called, listened by going out to a place which he was to receive for an inheritance. And he went out, not knowing where he was going. By trust he lived as an alien in the land of promise, as in a foreign land, dwelling in tents with Yitsḥaq and Ya‘aqōv̱, fellow heirs of the same promise, 10 because he was looking for the city which has foundations, whose architect and builder is the Al­migh­ty. 11 By trust even Sarah herself received ability to conceive, even beyond the proper time of life, since she considered him faithful who had promised. 12 Therefore, also, there was born of one man, and him as good as dead at that, as many descendants as the stars of heaven in number, and innumerable as the sand which is by the seashore.
13 13 All these died in trust, without receiving the promises, but having seen them and having welcomed them from a dis­tance, and having confessed that they were strangers and exiles on the earth, 14 because those who say such things make it clear that they are seeking a country of their own. 15 And indeed if they were thinking of that one from which they went out, they would have had opportunity to return. 16 But as it is, they desire a better one, that is a heavenly one. Therefore the Al­migh­ty is not ashamed to be called their Al­migh­ty, because he has prepared a city for them.
17 17 By trust A̕v̱raham, when he was tested, offered up Yitsḥaq, and he who had received the promises was offering up his only special one, 18  con­cerning whom it was said, “In Yitsḥaq your descendants will be called.” 19 He considered that the Al­migh­ty is able to resurrect even from the dead, from which he also received him back as a type.
20 20 By trust Yitsḥaq blessed Ya‘aqōv̱ and Ē‘saυ, even regarding things to come. 21 By trust Ya‘aqōv̱, as he was dying, blessed each of the sons of Yōsēf, and bowed down on the top of his staff bed. 22 By trust Yōsēf, when he was dying, made mention of the Exodus of the sons of Yisra’ēl, and gave orders concerning his bones.
23 23 By trust Mōshēh, when he was born, was hidden for three months by his parents, because they saw he was a beautiful child. And they were not afraid of the king’s edict. 24 By trust Mōshēh, when he had grown up, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, 25 choosing rather to endure ill-treat­ment with the people of the Al­migh­ty, than to enjoy the passing pleasures of sin, 26 considering the reproach of the Mes­si­ah greater riches than the treasures of Egypt, because he was looking to the reward. 27 By trust he left Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king, because he endured, as seeing him who is unseen. 28 By trust he kept the Passover and the sprinkling of the blood, so that he who destroyed the first-born might not touch them.
29 29 By trust they passed through the Red Sea as though they were passing through dry land. And the Egyptians, when they attempted it, were drowned. 30 By trust the walls of Yeri̱ḥō fell down, after they were encircled for seven days. 31 By trust Raḥav̱ the harlot did not perish along with those who were disobedient, after she had wel­comed the spies in peace.
32 32 And what more will I say? Because time will fail me if I tell of Gid‘ōn, Baraq, Shimshōn, Yiphtaḥ, of Daυi̱d and Shemū’ēl and the prophets, 33 who by trust conquered kingdoms, performed acts of justice, obtained promises, shut the mouths of lions, 34 quench­ed the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, from weak­ness were made strong, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight. 35 Women received back their dead by resurrection, and others were tor­tured, not accepting their release, in order that they might obtain a better resurrection, 36 and others expe­rienced mockings and scourgings, yes, also chains and imprisonment. 37 They were stoned. They were sawn in two. They were tempted. They were put to death with the sword. They went about in sheepskins, in goat­skins, being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated, 38 men of whom the world was not worthy, wandering in de­serts and mountains and caves and holes in the ground.
39 39 And all these, having gained approval through their trust, did not receive what was promised, 40 because the Al­migh­ty had provided something better for us, so that apart from us they should not be made perfect.

Chapter 12

1 Therefore, since we have so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us, let us also lay aside every weight, and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, fixing our eyes on Ye­shua, the author and perfecter of the faith, who for the joy set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Al­migh­ty. Because consider him who has endured such hostility by sinners against himself, so that you may not grow weary and lose heart.
4 You have not yet resisted to the point of shedding blood in your striving against sin. And you have forgotten the exhortation which is addressed to you as sons, “My son, do not regard lightly the dis­cipline of Yăhwēh, nor faint when you are reproved by him, because those whom Yăhwēh loves he dis­ciplines, and he scourges every son whom he receives.” It is for discipline that you endure. The Al­migh­ty deals with you as with sons, because what son is there whom his father does not discipline? But if you are without discipline, of which all have become partakers, then you are illegitimate children and not sons.
9 Furthermore, we had earthly fathers to discipline us, and we respected them. Shall we not much more be subject to the Fa­ther of spirits, and live? 10 Because they disciplined us for a short time as seemed best to them, but he disciplines us for our good, that we may share his holiness. 11 All discipline for the moment seems not to be joyful, but sorrowful, yet to those who have been trained by it, afterward it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness.
12 12 Therefore, strength­en the hands that are weak and the knees that are feeble, 13 and make straight paths for your feet, so that the limb which is lame may not be put out of joint, but rather be healed. 14 Pursue peace with all men, and the sanctification without which no one will see the Lord. 15 See to it that no one comes short of the grace of the Al­migh­ty, that no root of bitterness springing up causes trouble, and by it many be defiled, 16 that there be no immoral or godless person like ‘Ēsaυ, who sold his own birthright for a single meal, 17 because you know that even afterwards, when he desired to inherit the blessing, he was rejected, because he found no place for repentance, though he sought for it with tears.
18 18 Because you have not approached what is handled, that is to a blazing fire, and to darkness and gloom and whirlwind, 19 and to the blast of a trumpet and the sound of words which those who heard begged that no further word should be spoken to them, 20 because they could not bear the command, “If even a beast touches the mountain, it will be stoned.” 21 And so terrible was the sight, that Moses said, I am full of fear and trembling.
22 22 But you have come to Mount Tsi̱yōn and to the city of the living Al­migh­ty, the heavenly Yerūshalayim, and to myriads of messengers, 23 to the assembly of the first-born enrolled in heaven, and to the Al­migh­ty Judge of all, and to the spirits of righteous men made perfect, 24 and to Ye­shua, the mediator of a renewed covenant, and to the sprinkled blood, which speaks better than Hev̱el’s.
25 25 See to it that you do not refuse him who is speaking, because if those did not escape when they refused him who warned them on earth, much less will we escape who turn away from him who warns from heaven. 26 And his voice shook the earth then, but now it has been promised, saying, “Yet once more I will shake not only the earth, but also the heaven.” 27 And this expression, “Yet once more,” denotes the removing of those things which can be shaken, as of created things, in order that those things which cannot be shaken may remain.
28 28 Therefore, since we receive a kingdom which cannot be shaken, let us show gratitude, by which we may offer to the Al­migh­ty an acceptable service with reverence and awe, 29 because our Al­migh­ty is a consuming fire.

Chapter 13

1 Let love of the brethren continue. Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, because by this some have entertained messengers without knowing it. Remember the prisoners, as though in prison with them, and those who are ill-treated, since you yourselves also are in the body.
4 Let marriage be held in honor among all, and let the marriage bed be undefiled, because fornicators and adulterers the Al­migh­ty will judge. Let your character be free from the love of money, being content with what you have, because he himself has said, “I will never desert you, nor will I ever forsake you,” so that we confidently say, “Yăhwēh is my help­er, I will not be afraid. What will man do to me?”
7 Remember those who led you, who spoke the word of the Al­migh­ty to you, and considering the result of their conduct, imitate their faith. Ye­shua Mes­si­ah is the same yester­day and today, yes and to time im­memorial. Do not be carried away by varied and strange teach­ings, because it is good for the heart to be strengthened by grace, not by foods, through which those who were thus occupied were not benefited. 10 We have an altar, from which those who serve the tabernacle have no right to eat, 11 because the bodies of those animals whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside the camp. 12 Therefore Ye­shua also, that he might sanctify the people through his own blood, suffered outside the gate. 13 Hence, let us go out to him outside the camp, bearing his reproach.
14 14 Because here we do not have a lasting city, but we are seeking the city which is to come. 15 Through him then, let us continually offer up a sacrifice of praise to the Al­migh­ty, that is, the fruit of lips that give thanks to his name. 16 And do not neglect doing good and sharing, because with such sacrifices the Al­migh­ty is pleased.
17 17 Obey your leaders, and submit to them, because they keep watch over your souls, as those who will give an account. Let them do this with joy and not with grief, because this would be unprofitable for you. 18 Pray for us, because we are sure that we have a good conscience, desiring to conduct ourselves honorably in all things. 19 And I urge you all the more to do this, that I may be restored to you the sooner.
20 20 Now the Al­migh­ty of peace, who lead up from the dead the great Shepherd of the sheep with the blood of the everlasting covenant, even Ye­shua our Lord, 21 equip you in every good thing to do his will, working in us that which is pleasing in his sight, through Ye­shua the Mes­si­ah, to whom be the glory onward the times most immemorial of the times most immemorial. ’Amēn. 22 But I urge you, brethren, bear with this word of exhortation, because I have written to you briefly. 23 Take notice that our brother Timothy has been released, with whom, if he comes soon, I will see you. 24 Greet all of your leaders and all the saints. Those from Italy greet you. 25 Grace be with you all.